Luther from 1500-1536
Luther connected the abuses of the Church in the Germanic lands to the authority of the Church (Papacy). The papal authorities were taxing the German lands and using the money for their own projects.
These theses protested the selling of indulgences by Johann Tetzel. He believed that indulgences taught that salvation was through works. Luther said that salvation was only through faith. This challenges Leo X's authority over salvation
Archbishop Albrecht of Hohoenzollern declared Luther's beliefs heretical.
Luther is called to defend his beliefs. He refuses. This is his spiritual defense in front of churchman.
1) Authority of Scripture
2) Salvation through faith alone
3) Priesthood of Believers
Address to Nobility of the German Nation- Calls for princes to become reformed
Babylonian Captivity of the Church- attacked sacramental system & clergy can marry
On the Freedom of the Christian Man- Salvation through faith
Charles V, HRE, calls on Luther to recant his beliefs. Luther refuses.
Charles V calls for the capture of Luther and and end to teaching his beliefs. Luther is saved by Frederick III of Saxony protecting him.
While hidden in the Wartburg, Luther translated the NT into German. All literate people in Germany could now read scriptures.
Luther translated the OT into German.
Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I
Zwingli in Zurich
He is chosen priest even though accused of sexual immorality.
Zwingli felt the Catholic Church could not be reformed. Instead a new church was needed.
Zwingli said that there was no need for fast in order to gain salvation. He therefore ate sausages during Lent.
Zwingli requested the abolition in 1523, but it didn't occur until 1525. The people were less radical than Zwingli. Mass was a Catholic tradition which included the sacrament of communion.
67 Articles responded to the bishops anger over Zwingli's rejection of priestly celibacy. He rejected the authority of the bishops and so did the city.
Protestants in Swizerland (Zwingli) and German Lands (Luther) tried to agree in order to have common cause against the Catholic Church. Zwingli and Luther could not agree about the Eucharist.
Catholic and Protestant Cantons in Switzerland begin to fight.
Zwingli is killed and his body is mutilated and burned. The Reformation in Switzerland is continued by John Calvin.