Luther connected the abuses of the Church in the Germanic lands to the authority of the Church (Papacy). The papal authorities were taxing the German lands and using the money for their own projects.
95 Theses Posted
October 31, 1517
These theses protested the selling of indulgences by Johann Tetzel. He believed that indulgences taught that salvation was through works. Luther said that salvation was only through faith. This challenges Leo X's authority over salvation
Luther Condemned as Heretic
Archbishop Albrecht of Hohoenzollern declared Luther's beliefs heretical.
Luther called to Diet of Augsburg
Luther is called to defend his beliefs. He refuses. This is his spiritual defense in front of churchman.
1) Authority of Scripture
2) Salvation through faith alone
3) Priesthood of Believers
Luther Publishes Three Works
Address to Nobility of the German Nation- Calls for princes to become reformed
Babylonian Captivity of the Church- attacked sacramental system & clergy can marry
On the Freedom of the Christian Man- Salvation through faith
Diet of Worms
January 28, 1521 - May 25, 1521
Charles V, HRE, calls on Luther to recant his beliefs. Luther refuses.
Edict of Worms
May 25, 1521
Charles V calls for the capture of Luther and and end to teaching his beliefs. Luther is saved by Frederick III of Saxony protecting him.
Translation of NT
While hidden in the Wartburg, Luther translated the NT into German. All literate people in Germany could now read scriptures.
Translation of OT
Luther translated the OT into German.
Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I
Zwingli in Zurich
Zwingli Becomes People's Priest in Zurich
Dec. 11, 1518
He is chosen priest even though accused of sexual immorality.
Zwingli Rejects Reform of the Church
Zwingli felt the Catholic Church could not be reformed. Instead a new church was needed.
Lenten Fast Broken (Affair of Sausages)
Zwingli said that there was no need for fast in order to gain salvation. He therefore ate sausages during Lent.
Abolition of Mass
1523 - April 13, 1525
Zwingli requested the abolition in 1523, but it didn't occur until 1525. The people were less radical than Zwingli. Mass was a Catholic tradition which included the sacrament of communion.
Debate over 67 Articles
October 26, 1523
67 Articles responded to the bishops anger over Zwingli's rejection of priestly celibacy. He rejected the authority of the bishops and so did the city.
Protestants in Swizerland (Zwingli) and German Lands (Luther) tried to agree in order to have common cause against the Catholic Church. Zwingli and Luther could not agree about the Eucharist.
Civil War in Swiss Cantons
Catholic and Protestant Cantons in Switzerland begin to fight.
Zwingli Killed at Battle of Kappel
October 11, 1531
Zwingli is killed and his body is mutilated and burned. The Reformation in Switzerland is continued by John Calvin.