Reformation Timeline

Per. 2

German Reformation

1500-1536 focused on Luther

Luther Visits Rome


He felt that the abuses of the Church in Germany were linked with the authority of the Church. The papal authorities were taxing the German people and using the money for the Church in Rome.

95 Theses

October 31, 1517

Luther posts the 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral in order to protest the sale of indulgences, specifically by Johann Tetzel. He believed that works, such as indulgences, could not get someone to heaven. The pope did not have authority over salvation or truth. Only God did and his revelation of Scripture.

Luther Declared a Heretic

December 1517

Archbishop Albrecht of Hohenzollern declared Luther's beliefs heretical. The following 3 beliefs: Salvation through grace alone; Scripture is the sole authority on God; Priesthood of the believers.

Luther called to Diet of Augsburg

October 1518

Luther is called to defend his beliefs.

Luther Publishes Three Works


Address to Nobility of the German Nation- Calls for princes to become reformed
Babylonian Captivity of the Church- attacked sacramental system & clergy can marry
On the Freedom of the Christian Man- Salvation through faith

Called to Diet of Worms

Jan 28, 1521 - May 25, 1521

Charles V, HRE, called him to recant his beliefs. Luther refused to change.

Edict of Worms

May 25, 1521

Charles V called for the capture of Luther and an end to his teachings.

Translation of NT

September 1522

While hidden in the Wartburg, Luther translated the New Testament into German. All literate people in Germany could now read scripture for themselves.

Translation of the Bible


Luther translated the OT into German so that all literate people could have access to the Bible.

English Reformation

Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary Tudor, Elizabeth I

The King's Great Matter

1527 - 1531

King Henry needed a male heir. He believed his marriage to Catherine of Aragon was cursed because she had been married to his brother. He desires an annulment from the Pope, but the pope refuses.

Henry VIII is Supreme Head of Church of England


King Henry is made head of the Church of England by clergy. This replaces the pope as the head of the church in England. Henry still keeps Catholic practices.

Henry controls Church Legislation


Henry threatens the clergy with a list of grievances in order to gain control over the Church.

Henry marries Anne Boleyn

January 25, 1533

Henry marries Anne Boleyn in spite of still being married to Catherine of Aragon. Anne was already pregnant.

Henry's Marriage to Catherine Annulled

May 13, 1533

Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer annuls Henry's marriage to Catherine.

Thomas More Executed

July 6, 1535

Thomas More was executed because he didn't recognize Henry as the Head of the Church.

Church Lands Confiscated


King Henry takes church lands and gives them to his supporters. This gives him wealth and gets the support of the nobles.

Edward VI reigns

1547 - June 1553

Under Edward Protestant ministers change the Church of England to become more protestant. New articles of belief were written in line with Protestant thought.

Mary Tudor Reigns

July 1553 - November 1558

Mary, a Catholic, returned England to Catholic practice. However, she could not bring all the people of England back to Catholic worship. She did execute some Protestant leaders who refused to return to Catholicism. She also married the Spanish king Philip II, which made many Englishman angry.

Act of Supremacy


Elizabeth declared had herself declared the supreme governor of the church--a more protestant title than Henry had taken.

39 Articles of Faith


These articles struck a Protestant tone on theological issues.

Zwinglian Reformation

Zwingli in Zurich

Becomes Priest in Zurich

Dec. 11, 1518

He is chosen priest even though he was accused of sexual immorality.

Zwingli Rejects Reform


Zwingli felt that the Catholic Church could not be reformed. Instead, a new Church was needed.

Lenten Fast Broken (Affair of Sausages)

March 1522

Zwingli said that there was no need for fasting in order to gain salvation. He therefore ate sausages during Lent.

Abolition of Mass

1523 - April 13, 1525

Zwingli requested the abolition in 1523, but it didn't occur until 1525. The people were less radical than Zwingli. Mass was a Catholic tradition and included the Eucharist.

Debate over 67 Articles

October 26, 1523

67 Articles responded to the bishops anger over Zwingli's rejection of priestly celibacy. He rejected the authority of the bishops and so did the city.

Writes De Vera et Falsa Religione


Writes a document which maintains salvation based on faith.

Marburg Colloquy

October 1529

Protestants in Switzerland (Zwingli) and German Lands (Luther) tried to agree in order to have a common cause against the Catholic Church. Zwingli and Luther could not agree about the Eucharist.

Civil War in Swiss Cantons


Catholic and Protestant cantons in Switzerland begin to fight.

Zwingli Killed at Kappel

October 11, 1531

Zwingli is killed and his body is mutilated and burned. The Reformation in Switzerland is continued by John Calvin.