1500-1536 focused on Luther
He felt that the abuses of the Church in Germany were linked with the authority of the Church. The papal authorities were taxing the German people and using the money for the Church in Rome.
Luther posts the 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral in order to protest the sale of indulgences, specifically by Johann Tetzel. He believed that works, such as indulgences, could not get someone to heaven. The pope did not have authority over salvation or truth. Only God did and his revelation of Scripture.
Archbishop Albrecht of Hohenzollern declared Luther's beliefs heretical. The following 3 beliefs: Salvation through grace alone; Scripture is the sole authority on God; Priesthood of the believers.
Luther is called to defend his beliefs.
Address to Nobility of the German Nation- Calls for princes to become reformed
Babylonian Captivity of the Church- attacked sacramental system & clergy can marry
On the Freedom of the Christian Man- Salvation through faith
Charles V, HRE, called him to recant his beliefs. Luther refused to change.
Charles V called for the capture of Luther and an end to his teachings.
While hidden in the Wartburg, Luther translated the New Testament into German. All literate people in Germany could now read scripture for themselves.
Luther translated the OT into German so that all literate people could have access to the Bible.
Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary Tudor, Elizabeth I
King Henry needed a male heir. He believed his marriage to Catherine of Aragon was cursed because she had been married to his brother. He desires an annulment from the Pope, but the pope refuses.
King Henry is made head of the Church of England by clergy. This replaces the pope as the head of the church in England. Henry still keeps Catholic practices.
Henry threatens the clergy with a list of grievances in order to gain control over the Church.
Henry marries Anne Boleyn in spite of still being married to Catherine of Aragon. Anne was already pregnant.
Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer annuls Henry's marriage to Catherine.
Thomas More was executed because he didn't recognize Henry as the Head of the Church.
King Henry takes church lands and gives them to his supporters. This gives him wealth and gets the support of the nobles.
Under Edward Protestant ministers change the Church of England to become more protestant. New articles of belief were written in line with Protestant thought.
Mary, a Catholic, returned England to Catholic practice. However, she could not bring all the people of England back to Catholic worship. She did execute some Protestant leaders who refused to return to Catholicism. She also married the Spanish king Philip II, which made many Englishman angry.
Elizabeth declared had herself declared the supreme governor of the church--a more protestant title than Henry had taken.
These articles struck a Protestant tone on theological issues.
Zwingli in Zurich
He is chosen priest even though he was accused of sexual immorality.
Zwingli felt that the Catholic Church could not be reformed. Instead, a new Church was needed.
Zwingli said that there was no need for fasting in order to gain salvation. He therefore ate sausages during Lent.
Zwingli requested the abolition in 1523, but it didn't occur until 1525. The people were less radical than Zwingli. Mass was a Catholic tradition and included the Eucharist.
67 Articles responded to the bishops anger over Zwingli's rejection of priestly celibacy. He rejected the authority of the bishops and so did the city.
Writes a document which maintains salvation based on faith.
Protestants in Switzerland (Zwingli) and German Lands (Luther) tried to agree in order to have a common cause against the Catholic Church. Zwingli and Luther could not agree about the Eucharist.
Catholic and Protestant cantons in Switzerland begin to fight.
Zwingli is killed and his body is mutilated and burned. The Reformation in Switzerland is continued by John Calvin.