Ended hostilities in HRE
King Matthias orders the Protestant Assembly to dissolve
Holy Roman Emperor Matthias dies of natural causes at Vienna
Ferdinand is elected Holy Roman Emperor
Adolphus (Sweden) allied with electors of Brandenburg and Saxony & WON
Gustavus (Sweden) killed, although Swedish forces won
Most devastating phase of war; great international conflict.
France beat Spain and brought an end to Spain's military greatness.
Awarded France part of the Spanish Netherlands, ended fighting with Spain, Maria Theresa of Spain married to King Louis XIV of France.
Ended the 1635 to 1659 war between France and Spain, that was initially part of the 30 years war.
During the Thirty Years War the Netherlands were largely ruled by the Spanish; thus, the Dutch were not directly involved in most of fighting, but the Spanish troops posted there were.
Settled fighting between the Dutch and the Spanish in the Netherlands following the revolt of the Dutch against the Spanish oppression.
Final phase of the war where French, Swedish, and Spanish troops wreaked havoc in Germany. It was the most destructive point in the war. Here, religious issues became secondary to political ones.
Duke of Holstein
Wanted to control coastal towns of North Sea
King Christian IV of Denmark tried to bring Protestantism to Germany and was forced to retreat by Maximilian.
Christian IV (of Denmark) invaded Germany, but was ousted by Maximilian who humiliated him in to a rapid retreat
Ferdinand outlawed Calvinism
Ended Danish supremacy in the Baltic
Habsburg governors are thrown out the window.