HIST151 Timeline


[Ottoman] Osman's gazi gains tremendous success

  • Gazi: Muslim frontier warriors
  • The more success, the more it attracted
  • Occupation of Istanbul gave huge strategic advantage

[Ottoman] Creation of Navy

1400 - 1500
  • Successful creation of Navy made Ottomans most formidable army
  • Regularly sent armies to repel Safavid Empire

[Ottoman] Selim captures Cairo

  • Unites Islamic heartlands

[Ottoman] Suleyman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566
  • Suleyman the Magnificent captures Budapest and lays siege to Vienna
  • Adopted flexible admin rules to accommodate diverse seeds

[Egypt] Ali Bey al-Kabir

1760 - 1773
  • Ali Bey al-Kabir expands trade with Britain and France
  • Overthrown by own military commander

[Egypt] Becomes largely autonomous under Mamluks

1780 - 1790
  • But Mamluks were oppressive, unstable, and unpopular
  • Operated through competing households that collected tax and formed troops
  • No central government, held together by arrangement

[Reform] Sanusi Order

1787 - 1859
  • al-Sanusi wanted to re-create original community of Prophet
  • Rejected Ottoman and Egyptian forms of Islamic behaviour in favour of more austere desert life
  • Eastern Libya, Cyrenaica
  • Had remarkable success with surrounding tribes
  • Comprehensive network of brotherhoods and trading posts
  • Opposed French expansion in Central Africa and resisted Italian invasion in 1911, basis for contemporary Libyan state

[Egypt] Napoleon invades Britain

  • French expeditionary force to Egypt gets cut-off from outside by British

[Egypt] Muhammad Ali arrives as force of British forces

  • To expel French

[Egypt] M Ali recognized as governor


[Egypt] M Ali kills 74 Mamluks at banquet

  • Refashioned armed forces, reorganized administration, installed centralized bureaucracy, introduced heavy industry
  • Wanted to establish dynasty for family
  • Sent training missions to Europe and intensified higher education

[Egypt] M Ali occupies Syria

  • Tries to impose Egyptian market monopoly

[Egypt] M Ali establishes School of Languages


[Ottoman] Tanzimat

1836 - 1876
  • Reorganization of administration, law, education, military, economy, and human rights
  • Driven by Rashid Pasha, Ali Pasha, and Fuad Pasha

[Egypt] Treaty of Balta Liman

  • Abolished all monopolies within Ottoman Empire

[Tanzimat] Hatt-i Sharif of Gulhane

  • Abolition of tax farming
  • Standardization of conscription
  • Elimination of corrupted
  • All extended to populaces regardless of religion

[Egypt] Treaty of London

  • Compelled M Ali to withdraw from all territories except Sudan and limited Egyptian army

[Tanzimat] Ministry of Education

  • Worked toward secondary school systems outside ulama control

[Ottoman] Crimean War

1854 - 1856
  • Russia attempts to gain authority over Ottoman Orthodox Christians
  • Stopped by 1856 Treaty of Paris
  • Black Sea demilitarized, Russian troops in Danube withdrawn

[Tanzimat] Hatt-i Humayan


Muslim and non-Muslims were to have equal obligations in military service and equal opportunities for state employment and state schools

[Ottoman] Abdul Hamid pumps education

1865 - 1895
  • Witnessed acceleration of certain Tanzimat programs, mostly education
  • Goal was to Ottomanize modern secondary education than to restore pre-Tanzimat system
  • Added no fewer than 18 higher educational schools to system
  • Rise in political and social expectation of Ottoman youth
  • Young people soon discover real circles of power are limited to particular elite

[Reform] Mahdist Revolt

1873 - 1879
  • Rebellion against Egyptian occupation of Sudan
  • Movement of purification of Islam
  • Muhammad Ahmad channeled discontent into mass movement of protest and purification

[Ottoman] Great Eastern Crisis

1875 - 1878
  • Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, and part of Bulgaria gain independence
  • Russia gains Kars and Batum
  • Austria got Bosnia

[Tanzimat] Secular court reform


Mejelle: Secular legal code
Nizame: System of secular courts

[Ottoman] Sultan Abdul Aziz deposed


New Sultan Abdul Hamid II promised to uphold constitution and elected chamber

[Ottoman] Constitution dissolved


Abdul Hamid II begins 30 years of autocratic rule

[Ottoman] Decree of Muharram


Authorized establishment of Ottoman Public Debt Administration
- Surrendered Ottoman financial independence to Europe

[Ottoman] Istanbul linked to Vienna

  • Railway service develops all around

[Turkism] Committee of Union and Progress first incarnation

1889 - 1896
  • Founded by students in military-medical academy
  • Spies eventually uncovered and arrested/exiled all of them

[Turkism] Counterrevolution

  • By common soldiers and theological students demanded restoration of Sharia

[Ottoman] Young Turks

1909 - 1918
  • Overthrows Abdul Hamid

[Turkism] Consolidated military dictatorship

  • Enver, Talat, Jamal Pasha
  • Becomes increasingly oppressive

[Arabism] Party of Ottoman Administrative Decentralization formed


- President: Rafiq al-Azm