Consequences of the Red River Resistance

Events

More immigrants move into Red River Valley

1860

Consequences for the Metis:
With the new settlers immigrating to the Red River Settlement, the Metis had to deal with a lot of discrimination. The new immigrants were Protestant and members of the Orange Order, a movement that was anti-French and Anti-Catholic. Unfortunately, the Metis spoke French and were Catholic. These immigrants also thought Metis were inferior because they were bicultural. The rivalry between these people caused a lot of tension in the Red River Settlement.

Consequences for the Government:
The increase in immigrants was good for the Government and the more non-Metis people there were the easier the purchase of Rupert's Land would go over. The English-speaking Protestans were more likely to be okay with becoming part of Canada and its laws and ways of life, whereas the Metis had their own culture and lifestyle and didn't want Canada to change that.

HBC and Canada negotiate the transfer of Rupert's Land

1867 - 1868

Consequences for the Metis:
The Metis and other settlers who lived in Rupert's Land were not consulted before the agreement. They had no say in whether they wanted their land or settlement to become part of Canada. They were worried they'd lose their land.

Consequences for the Government:
The negotiations went in the right direction for Canada and before the negotiations had even ended, both HBC and Canada knew that Canada was going to purchase Rupert's Land. Not asking the settlers who already lived in Rupert's Land made it much easier to transfer the land into Canada's hands. But, not asking the settlers created tensions between the Metis and the Government of Canada.

Louis Riel returns to the Red River Settlement

1868

Consequences for the Metis:
He eventually became the leader of the Metis and helped them gain their rights back. He was a strong leader and could speak both French and English. He was also a great orator and was convincing and persuasive.

Consequences for the Government:
Louis Riel was a leader for the Metis and eventually led them to rebel. He gave the Metis ideas and someone to look up. He made them stronger and more organized, which is exactly what the Government didn't want. They wanted the Metis to let the transfer of Rupert's Land go over easy, without conflict.

Red River Rebellion

1869

Consequences for the Metis:
The Red River Rebellion showed that the Metis were unhappy with the lack of communication when the ownership of Rupert's Land was transferred over. It also made them look stronger and more noticeable. The Rebellion helped them get the attention of the Government to negotiate their rights. That was all they really wanted, the Metis didn't want to cause an uprising. It was during this time that the Metis List of Rights and Freedoms was formed.

Consequences for the Government:
The Red River Rebellion made it so the Government couldn't ignore the Metis and had to listen to what they wanted. The Government also had to deal with the conflicts that happened during the Rebellion.

Metis List of Rights and Freedoms

1869

Consequences for the Metis:
The List of Rights and Freedoms ensured that the Metis got to keep their rights. Louis Riel wanted to not only protect the right of the Metis but of the other people from the Red River Settlement.

Consequences for the Government:
The List of Rights and Freedoms made the Government and other groups of people not discriminate towards the Metis and made the Government respect their ways of life and culture. Canada couldn't just barge in and start mapping out new towns and settlements over top of old ones.

Canada purchases Rupert's Land

1869

Consequences for the Metis:
The Metis were afraid they would lose their rights and land. They were already dealing with discrimination and the purchase increased the discrimination. The Metis had their own way of life and the purchase of Rupert's Land and the transfer of their home from one group to another worried them. When HBC owned Rupert's Land, the Metis had freedom to follow their culture but when the discussion of transferring Rupert's Land to Canada was happening, Canada sent over surveyors that ignored the land of the Metis and started plotting out township, disregarding how and where the Metis farmed and lived.

Consequences for the Government:
Purchasing Rupert's Land helped Canada grow in size and population. Not all of the new citizens of Canada were happy with this. The Government had to deal with the tension and anger coming from the Metis and other settlers who were against Canada buying Rupert's Land.

The Metis move westward

1870

Consequences for the Metis:
Many Metis decided to move westward, away from Manitoba, even after they thought they solved all the issues. But they hadn't. Metis people still had to deal with harsh discrimination and land speculators. More English-speaking Protestant immigrants were moving into the Red River Settlement. After moving westward, they tried to recreate their life like at the Red River Settlement.

Consequences for the Government:
The Government lost citizens of Manitoba, but filled up those spots with new immigrants that weren't Metis and didn't have to have special rights. These new immigrants were happy with how they lived and that was better for Canada's Government.

Thomas Scott killed

1870

Consequences for the Metis:
When Thomas Scott was killed by men from Louis Riel's provisional government, it was not a good thing for the Metis. Many Metis thought this was terrible and regretted it. It made them look cruel and rash, whereas all they wanted were their rights. They didn't want to start a civil war. It also made it harder to negotiate with the Government.

Consequences for the Government:
They lost a supporter but that wasn't a huge deal. It gave a better reason to ignore the Metis' demands to work out the conflicts about their rights.

The province of Manitoba is formed

1870

Consequences for the Metis:
The Metis gained their own province, although it was small, it enabled them to have some of their own laws. They weren't allowed to have complete control over the land in Manitoba but the Government gave the Metis some land because of their aboriginal title.

Consequences for the Government:
They gained a new province and the rebellions stopped. They didn't to give up much, giving the Metis some of their own land. But, the Government got to keep most of the land as well as the rest of Rupert's Land.

The Laws of St. Laurent are created

1873

Consequences for the Metis:
The Laws of St. Laurent helped with monitoring the Buffalo Hunt. The Metis depended on the buffalo and if they were to go extinct, the Metis would have a hard time. The Laws also governed other things like how the Metis lived in the settlement. The laws helped reduce conflicts in settlements.

Consequences for the Government:
The Laws of St. Laurent didn't really affect the Government that much. They just had to say the Laws were okay. Around this time, the Government wasn't really focusing on the Metis.