Carina's Year 3 Timeline

Main

Darby employs coke to smelt iron.

1709

Newcomen develops a steam-driven pump.

1712

Improved hand loom halves time for weaving and ups the demand for yarn.

1733

Captain Cook claims Australia for Britain.

1770

Arkwright invents water frames.

1770

Watt improves the steam engine.

1770 - 1779

Hargreave's spinning jenny is invented.

1778

French Revolution

1789 ad - 1799 ad

The French National Assembly takes power as the voice of the people.

1789 ad

French constitutional monarchy is created.

1789

July 14th: Storming of the Bastille in Paris

1789

Bill of Rights is included in the U.S. Constitution.

1791

Estates-General meets in France.

1791

France at war with European neighbors

1792 - 1797

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are executed.

1793

Reign of Terror in France

1793 - 1794

Slater constructs a textile mill.

1793

Whitney's cotton gin receives a patent.

1794

The Directory rules France.

1795 - 1799

John Adams is President.

1797 - 1801

XYZ Affair

1797

Congress passes Alien and Sedition Acts.

1798

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

1798

Quasi-War with France

1798 - 1799

Napoleon seizes power, becoming First Consul.

1799

Napoleon defeats Austrians in Italy; Second Italian Campaign results in Treaty of Campo Formio.

1800

Jefferson and Burr receive the same number of electoral votes. Jefferson is elected by a majority vote in the House of Representatives.

1800

John and Abigail Adams occupy the unfinished Executive Mansion (later called the White House).

1800 ad

Napoleon invades Italy and defeats Austria twice in battle.

1800

Pope Pius VII agrees to the Concordat of 1801.

1801

Tripoli declares war on the United States.

1801

Thomas Jefferson serves as President of the U.S.

1801 - 1809

John Marshall becomes chief justice of the Supreme Court.

1801

Britain signs Treaty of Amiens with France.

1802

Napoleon sells the Louisiana Territory to America.

1803

Napoleon sells the Louisiana territory to the U.S.

1803

Ohio joins the U.S. as the seventeenth state.

1803

Marbury v. Madison establishes the principle of judicial review.

1803

Fulton's steamboat makes its maiden voyage.

1803

Napoleon crowns himself Emperor.

1804

Lewis and Clark set out on their expedition.

1804

The twelfth amendment is added to the Constitution.

1804

Battle of Trafalgar

1805

Battle of Ulm

1805

Battle of Austerlitz

1805

Jefferson serves his second term as President.

1805 - 1809

William Pitt the Younger dies.

1806

Continental System established by Napoleon

1806

Alexander I of Russia signs treaties with Napoleon at Tilsit after Napoleon defeats Prussia.

1807

France fights the Peninsular War against Portugal and Spain.

1807 - 1813

Jefferson outlaws foreign slave trade in America. Aaron Burr is tried for treason.

1807

Congress passes Embargo Act.

1807

British ship Leopard fires on the American Chesapeake.

1807

Non-Intercourse Act replaces the Embargo Act.

1809

James Madison is President.

1809 - 1817

Venezuela declares itself a Republic.

1810

Harrison wins the Battle of Tippecanoe against Tecumseh.

1811

Napoleon's Grand Army invades Russia with disastrous results.

1812

Jose de San Martin helps free Argentina.

1812

United States declares war on Great Britain.

1812

Napoleon defeated at Battle of Nations (Leipzig)

1813

Jackson leads troops against the Creek Indians and wins the Creek War.

1813 - 1814

Allies occupy Paris: Napoleon abdicates and is banished to the Isle of Elba.

1814

Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24.

1814

British invade and burn government buildings in Washington, D.C.

1814

"The Star-Spangled Banner" is written by Francis Scott Key after he observes the bombardment of Ft. McHenry.

1814

The Congress of Vienna convenes with representatives from England, Prussia, Russia, Austria, France, and other countries.

1814

Bolivar is made dictator of Colombia.

1814

Uruguay wins freedom from Spain.

1814

Paraguay declares independence.

1814

Louis XVIII is king of France.

1814 - 1824

"100 Days" and Waterloo; banishment to the St. Helena

1815

Andrew Jackson wins the Battle of New Orleans against the British after the Treaty of Ghent is already signed.

1815

Congress of Vienna redraws that map of Europe.

1815

Jackson becomes a war hero, by winning the Battle of New Orleans.

1815

Mississippi is added to the Union.

1817

First Seminole War

1817 - 1818

James Monroe is President of the U.S.

1817 - 1825

Jose de San Martin frees Chili from Spain.

1818

Illinois is added to the Union.

1818

Bolivar becomes president of the Gran Colombia.

1819

Alabama is added to the Union.

1819

Maine is added to the Union as part of the Missouri Compromise.

1820

Napoleon dies.

1821

Panama declares its independence and joins Gran Colombia.

1821

Missouri is added to the Union.

1821

Mexico wins its independence from Spain.

1821

Greeks begin a rebellion against Ottoman Turks.

1821

Peru declares its independence.

1822

Pedro I declares Brazil independent.

1822

Stephen Austin establishes the first, official American colony in Texas.

1822

President Monroe proclaims the Monroe Doctrine in a speech before Congress.

1823

Charles X is king of France.

1824 - 1830

Tumultuous presidential election ends with Henry Clay supporting John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson claiming a "corrupt bargain."

1824

Ecuador joins the Gran Colombia. Bolivia declares its independence.

1825

John Quincy Adams serves as the sixth President of the United States.

1825 - 1829

Congress issues the Tariff of Abominations.

1828

Andrew Jackson's first term as President.

1829 - 1833

Jackson approves of the Indian Removal Act.

1830

Spasms of revolution convulse Europe.

1830

Louis Philippe becomes king of France after the July Revolution.

1830 - 1848

Belgians declare and gain independence.

1830

Mexico prohibits further American settlement in Texas.

1830

London Protocol recognizes Greek independence.

1830

Joseph Smith publishes the Book of Mormon.

1830

Leopold I is the first king of Belgium.

1831 - 1865

Leaders in the South pass the Ordinance of Nullification; Jackson threatens use of force in response.

1832

Jackson vetoes the bill for rechartering the national bank.

1832

Otto I rules as the first king of Greece.

1832 - 1862

The Battle of Velasco is the first armed conflict of the Texas Revolution.

1832

The Reform Bill gives many middle-class men the right to vote.

1832

Hudson Taylor lives.

1832 - 1905

Santa Anna becomes president of Mexico.

1833

Smith founds the Church of Christ (later renamed the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints).

1833

Santa Anna's army destroys the Alamo, killing over 180 men including Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, and William Travis.

1836

Santa Anna's army is defeated by Sam Houston's Texan army.

1836

Delegates sign Texas Declaration of Independence.

1836

Sam Houston becomes president of the Republic of Texas.

1836

Around 350 Texans are massacred by the Mexican army at Goliad.

1836

Charles Darwin visits Australia.

1836

Marcus and Narcissa Whitman travel west.

1836

Victoria rules as Queen of England.

1837 - 1901

Martin Van Buren is President.

1837 - 1841

Between 13,000 to 17,000 Cherokee Indians are forced to march the Trail of Tears.

1838

Two Opium Wars are fought between China and Great Britain. So called "Unequal Treaties" are negotiated, opening more Chinese ports to trade and giving control of Hong Kong to Britain.

1839 - 1842

Victoria marries Albert of Saxe-Coburg.

1840

New Zealand becomes a British colony.

1840

John Tyler is President.

1841 - 1845

William Henry Harrison is President.

1841

Samuel Morse sends his famous telegraph message.

1844

Texas is annexed to the United States via a joint act of Congress.

1845

James Polk is President.

1845 - 1849

The Irish potato famine ravages Ireland and many immigrate to the United States.

1845 - 1848

Thornton Affair

1846

Britain signs the Oregon Treaty.

1846

Mexican-American War

1846 - 1848

Indians attack the Whitman mission and kill both Marcus and Narcissa.

1846

The Seminole Indians are the last of the Five Civilized Tribes forced west.

1847

Brigham Young leads the Latter-day Saints to begin their migration to Utah.

1847

James Marshall discovers gold at John Sutter's sawmill in California.

1848

Francis Joseph I rules Austria.

1848 - 1916

Revolution sweeps through Europe.

1848 - 1849

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organize the first women's rights convention.

1848

Victor Emmanuel II rules Sardinia.

1849 - 1878

Zachary Taylor is President of the United States.

1849 - 1850

Millard Fillmore is President.

1849 - 1853

Austria puts down revolutions in Italy.

1849

California becomes a state in the Union as part of the Compromise of 1850.

1850

Great Exhibition

1851

Taiping Rebellion in China

1851 - 1854

James Drummond Dole founds the Hawaiian Pineapple Company.

1851

Napoleon III declares himself emperor of France.

1852

Commodore Matthew Perry negotiates trading agreement with Japan, ending it isolationism.

1853 - 1854

Franklin Pierce is President of the United States.

1853 - 1857

Crimean War

1854 - 1856

Battle of Balaklava

1854

Florence Nightingale organizes an army hospital at Scutari.

1854

Lord Palmerston is prime minister of Britain.

1855 - 1865

Tsar Alexander II rules Russia.

1855 - 1881

Two Opium Wars are fought between China and Great Britain. So called "Unequal Treaties" are negotiated, opening more Chinese ports to trade and giving control of Hong Kong to Britain.

1856 - 1860

Treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War.

1856

Sepoy Rebellion in India

1857

James Buchanan is President.

1857 - 1861

Dred Scot case decided by Supreme Court

1857

Great Britain takes direct rule of British India.

1858

The first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable is successfully laid, connecting American and European telegraph networks.

1858

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

1859

France and Sardinia defeat the Austrians in northern Italy.

1859

Garibaldi takes Sicily and Naples.

1860

Seven states secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America following Lincoln's election as President.

1860 - 1861

Lincoln is the sixteenth President of the United States.

1861 - 1865

Prince Albert dies.

1861

Italy is united under Victor Emmanuel II, with the exceptions of Venetia and Rome.

1861

Battle of Fort Sumter

April 1861

First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)

July 1861

Bismarck leads first Prussia and then a united German Empire.

1862 - 1890

Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

1862

Battles of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson

February 1862

First Battle of the Ironclads

March 1862

Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburgh Landing)

April 1862

Capture of New Orleans

May 1862

Battle of Seven Pines (Fair Oaks)

May 1862 - June 1862

Battles of the Seven Days

June 1862 - July 1862

Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)

August 1862

Battle of Antietam

September 1862

Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

September 1862

Battle of Fredericksburg

December 1862 - January 1863

Battle of Stones River

December 1862 - January 1863

Emancipation Proclamation

January 1863

Battle of Chancellorsville

April 1863 - May 1863

Battle of Vicksburg

May 1863 - July 1863

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1863

Battle of Chickamauga

September 1863

Battle of Chattanooga

September 1863

Gettysburg Address

November 1863

Prussia and Austria ally to defeat the Danes over the Schleswig-Holstein question.

1864

Battle of the Wilderness

May 1864

Battle of Spotsylvania

May 1864

Richmond-Petersburg Campaign (Siege of Petersburg)

June 1864 - March 1865

Battle of Cold Harbor

June 1864

Battle of Atlanta

July 1864

Battle of Jonesborough

August 1864

Second Battle of Franklin

November 1864

Andrew Johnson is President of the United States.

1865 - 1869

The Thirteenth Amendment frees all black slaves.

1865

Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House, VA

April 9, 1865

Lincoln dies after being shot by John Wilkes Booth

April 15, 1865

Johnston surrenders to Sherman, effectively ending the Civil War.

April 26, 1865

Italy is awarded Venetia by Austria.

1866

Prussia wins a brief but decisive war with Austria (the Austro-Prussian War of 1866).

1866

America purchases Alaska.

1867

The Military Reconstruction Act divides the South into five military districts.

1867

President Andrew Johnson is impeached.

1868

The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees to all freed slaves the status of full U.S. citizens.

1868

William Gladstone is prime minister of Britain.

1868 - 1874

Benjamin Disraeli is prime minister of Britain.

February 1868 - December 1868

The Suez Canal is completed.

1869

Ulysses S. Grant is President of the United States.

1869 - 1877

Transcontinental Railroad is completed.

1869

The Fifteenth Amendment gives all freed male slaves the right to vote.

1870

The doctrine of papal infallibility is first published.

1870

Italy gains control of Rome; the Pope retains Vatican City.

1870

Prussians defeat France in the Franco-Prussian War.

1870 - 1871

Second French Empire falls.

1871

The Great Chicago Fire

1871

German states are unified when the German Empire is declared at Versailles's Hall of Mirrors.

1871

Benjamin Disraeli is prime minister of Britain.

1874 - 1880

Prime Minister Disraeli purchases a sizeable interest in the Suez Canal for Great Britain.

1875

Alexander Graham Bell's telephone is patented.

1876

George Custer and his men are killed at Little Big Horn, Montana, by the Sioux.

1876

Rutherford B. Hayes is President of the United States.

1877 - 1881

Thomas Edison invents the electric lightbulb.

1879

William Gladstone is prime minister of Britain.

1880 - 1885

James A. Garfield is President of the United States.

1881

Chester Arthur is President of the United States.

1881 - 1885

Booker T. Washington helps found Tuskegee Institute.

1881

Tsar Alexander III rules Russia.

1881 - 1894

Congress passes Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.

1882

Buffalo Bill travels with his Wild West Show.

1883

Berlin Conference regulates European colonialism in Africa.

1884 - 1885

Louis Pasteur's rabies vaccine is proved successful.

1885

President Grover Cleveland's first term.

1885 - 1889

Lord Salisbury is prime minister of Britain.

1885 - January 1886

William Gladstone is prime minister of Britain.

February 1886 - July 1886

Lord Salisbury is prime minister of Britain.

July 1886 - 1892

Convention of Constantinople declares the Suez Canal to be a neutral zone under the protection of the British.

1888

Frederick III succeeds Wilhelm I as German emperor but dies after only 99 days.

1888

Wilhelm II, Frederick III's son, is the German kaiser.

1888 - 1918

Benjamin Harrison is President of the United States.

1889 - 1893

Sherman Antitrust Act

1890

Louisiana passes a law that says that no "colored" people can ride in the same railroad cars with whites.

1890

Mississippi is the first Southern state to enact Jim Crow laws that effectively disenfranchise blacks.

1890

Progressive Party nominates its first presidential candidate: James B. Weaver.

1892

Homer Plessy challenges this law by attempting to take a purchased seat in a white-only railroad car.

1892

First immigrants arrive on Ellis Island, beginning the mass immigration of the twentieth century.

1892

William Gladstone is prime minister of Britain.

1892 - 1894

Grover Cleveland serves his second term as President of the United States.

1893 - 1897

A coup is organized against Queen Liliuokalant of Hawaii.

1893

Sanford B. Dole becomes president of the new Hawaiian government.

1894

Booker T. Washington's "Atlanta Address"

1895

Lord Salisbury is prime minister of Britain.

1895 - 1902

William Jennings Bryan's famous "Cross of Gold" speech wins him the Democratic presidential nomination and support from Populists.

1896

The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson establishes the legal principle of "separate but equal" segregation in the South.

1896

Hawaii is annexed as a territory of the U.S.

1898