French History

Main

Celtic Period

Approx. 700 BC - Approx. 050 BC

Gaul

Roman Period

Approx. 50 BC - Approx. 400 CE

Gaul becomes a province

Frankish Period - (1st Monarchy)

Approx. 400 - Approx. 1792

Germanic Franks led by Clovis conquer the province and convert to Christianity

1st Republic

1792 - 1804

Napoleonic Period - (1st Empire)

1804 - 1815

Period of Napoleon Boneparte (begins as a general during the Revolution but then takes over as a military dictator and proclaims himself Emperor of the French)

2nd Monarchy

1815 - 1848

Restored Bourbon monarchy after Napoleon's defeat

2nd Republic

1848 - 1852

King Louis Philippe overthrown; "Second Republic" of France

Napoleon III (2nd Empire)

1852 - 1870

a nephew of Napoleon Boneparte gets elected as president of the republic but then proclaims himself emperor as Napoleon III

3rd Republic

1871 - 1940

Period of the "Third Republic" (government during and after WWI)

Vichy France

1940 - 1944

France is overrun by Nazi Germany and occupied; a collaborationist French government is set up ("Vichy France") until France is liberated by the Americans, British, and Canadians in summer and fall 1944; French General Charles de Gaulle emerges as French national leader

4th Republic

1945 - 1958

Period of the "Fourth Republic" (government that takes over after WWII, tries unsuccessfully to reestablish France's colonial empire in Vietnam and Africa, but collapses during a crisis over war in Algeria)

5th Republic

1958 - Approx. 2014

Period of "Fifth Republic" (current French governmental system)

Rulers

Merovingian Dynasty

Approx. 428 - Approx. 750

Kings descended from Clovis

Carolingian Dyn.

Approx. 751 - Approx. 987

Kings descended from warlords who took over from the Merovingian dynasty

Charlemagne

Approx. 775 - Approx. 825

Charlemagne ("Charles the Great") becomes King of Franks and conquers a large empire in Western and Central Europe

Capetian Dynasty

Approx. 987 - Approx. 1792

Beginning of the medieval monarchy under King Hugh Capet

Philip Augustus

1180 - 1223

King Henry IV

1589

After decades of civil war between Catholics and Protestants (Hugenots), protestant Henry of Navarre converts to Catholicism and becomes King Henry IV, the founder of the Bourbon dynasty.

King Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Reign of King Louis XIV (called the "Sun King"), considered the high-point of the absolute monarchy of France.

Events

Creation of France I - Treaty of Verdun

843

Price, Roger. A Concise History of France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Google Books Edition, pg 47.

France Unified

Approx. 1150 - Approx. 1250

King Philip II Augustus unifies most of modern France's territory under the French crown

Creation of France II

1180 - 1223

Price, Roger. A Concise History of France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Google Books Edition, pg 61.

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

Hundred Years War against English; modern French "national" identity strengthened by Joan of Arc

Creation of France III - Treaty of Bretigny

1360

Price, Roger. A Concise History of France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Google Books Edition, pg 64.

FRENCH REVOLUTION

1789

Period of the French Revolution (Louis XIV and his family are killed, France becomes a republic)

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Franco-Prussian War (France is quickly defeated and Napoleon III is deposed); radical "Paris Commune" is suppressed by new moderate French government