Ohio makes German-English instruction available at parents' request.
(approximately 400,000 students)
(Norwegian, Italian, Polish, Czech & Cherokee)
Fear during WWI regarding the loyalty of non-English speakers prompted these shifts; some states even banned the study of foreign languages (this last was declared unconstitutional in 1923).
Governor Ronald Reagan signs bill overturning 1872 law - allows use of languages other than English for instruction in public schools in California.
Provides federal funding to encourage local districts to try native-language instruction (many did).
San Francisco school district is sued over unequal instruction/education for Chinese speaking student: "Basic English skills are at the very core of what public schools teach. Imposition of a requirement that, before a child can effectively participate in the educational program, he must already have acquired those basic skills is to make a mockery of public education."
California law establishes programs for LEP students using federal guidelines for identification, placement and reclassification as FEP.
Strengthens previous legislation requiring school districts to provide programs for language minority students.
Requires "appropriate action to overcome language barriers" and sets standard for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students. School districts must have a plan, qualified staff, and a system to evaluate for efficacy.
Governor Deukmejian vetoes bill to extend bilingual education law (AB 2813) TWICE, allowing it to expire. Sunset provisions go into effect and districts continue to enforce Chacon-Moscone without a clear mandate to do so.
State responsibilities for language remediation programs and requirements for redesignation of LEP to FEP (Limited to Fluent English Proficient) are laid out.
Orange Unified School District sued by plaintiffs claiming LEP student rights were violated by district waivers for English-only instruction. Judge ruled that the state could not grant waivers, but also that they were not required to provide bilingual education under CA law (only federal requirements for language minority children applied).
Virtually banned bilingual education in California (special conditions allow for one-year "sheltered immersion").
California Board of Education eliminates criteria for redesignation; school districts now create their own criteria to move students from LEP to FEP.
California Board of Education adopts ELD standards related to content standards. An ELD test, linked to standards, is developed.
AZ passes law against teaching Ethnic Studies in elementary and secondary schools; many minority students protest.