History I: Lives of Classical Composers

Haydn's Life

Haydn born

1732

Rohrau Austria

Chorister in St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna

1740

Haydn learns violin, clavier and organ

1740

Voice broke, left choir school

1749

Teaching, accompanying, performed in streets, Viennese idiom + folk music style

1749

Entered service of Esterhazys

1761 - Approx. 1809

Greater part of creative career, music played central part of festivities, given sole control of orchestra, had orchestra, opera company, marionette theatre and chapel, opportunities to compose, experiment and conduct, constant approval, much fame

Esterhazy Prince's death

1790

Accepted invitation from London impresario Salomon

1790

Commission for 12 symphonies

Visited England

1791 - 1792

Visited England

1794 - 1795

Died

1809

Leading musician, acknowledged through Europe

Mozart's Life

Mozart born

1756

Performed with sister Maria Anne (Nannerl) at court of Empress Maria Theresa

1762

Grand tour: Paris, London, and Munich

Approx. 1763

Wrote sonatas, concertos, symphonies, religious works and operas

1769

Rebelled against the social restrictions

Approx. 1780

Relations with patrons (Hieronymus von Colleredo and Prince Archbishop of Salzburg were strained

Vienna, free-lance musician

1781

Struggling to achieve financial security

Marries Constanze Weber

1782

Against father's wishes

Libretto by da Ponte, Don Giovanni for Prague Opera

1786

Success in Prague, baffled Viennese public, Not pure opera buffa, but dramma giocoso = serio-comic, tragedy and comedy

Offered low-paying job at court of Emperor Joseph II

1787

In favour of Salieri, Mozart gave minor paying jobs

"Requiem" commissioned by music loving count

1790

Composed "Die Zauberflote" (librettist Schikaneder), "Clarinet Concerto"

1790

Joseph II dies, successor Leopold II gives same job

1790

Mozart died, Sussmayr completes Requiem

1791

Beethoven's Life

Beethoven born

1770

Studied with father and Christian Neefe

Approx. 1780

Assistant organist in church chapel

1781

Harpsichordist to court orchestra

1782

Went to Vienna to play for Mozart

1787

Went to study with Haydn

1792

Not satisfied under Haydn

Worked under modified form of patronage system

Approx. 1794

Not attached to court of prince, patrons included Prince Lichnowsky, Prince Lobkowitz, Count Razumovsky and Count Waldstein= Received him as an equal and a friend

Starts to lose hearing

1795

Emergence of middle class public, growth of concert life and music publishing

Approx. 1796

Established as greatest pianist of his time, a teacher and promising composer

Approx. 1798

Students included Carl Czerny who wrote a book on how to perform Beethoven's music, Countess Giulietta Guicciardi, Beethoven's lover for a time, dedicated Moonlight Sonata

Retires to summer resort outside of Vienna, Heiligenstadt

1802

Wrote Heiligenstadt Testament

Brother dies, bad relations with cousin

1815

Died in Vienna

1827

Famous and revered