Russian History 1856-64

Rulers

Reign of Nicholas I

1825 - 1855

Reign of Alexander II

1855 - 1881

Reign of Alexander III

1881 - 1894

Reign of Nicolas II

1894 - 1917

Provisional Government

March 1917 - October 1917

Lenin

November 1917 - 1922

Stalin

1922 - 1952

Khrushchev

1953 - 1964

Wars, Conflict & Revolution

Polish Revolt

1863 - 1864

2-3,000 populists tried to rouse revolution from peasants

1873 - 1874

Land & Liberty

1876 - 1879

Population of Moscow & St. Petersburg more than doubled

1881 - 1910

Social Democratic Worker's Party formed

1889

Bolsheviks arranged strikes in St. Petersburg's textile workers

1896 - 1897

World depression

1899

Ministry of Interior told General Zubatov to reconcile works

1901

Zubatov arranged trade unions

1901 - 1903

SDWP split into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks

1903

Rural disturbances throughout Russia

1904

Bloody Sunday

January 1905

Peasant Rebellion

1905

11 million working class in cities

1913

Propaganda & Literature

Sportman's Sketches - Turgenev

1852

Fathers and Sons - Turgenev

1862

Smoke - Turgenev

1867

War & Peace - Tolstoy

1873

Shah of Persia painting

1874

Social Democratic Party postcard

1901

The Lower Depths - Gorky

1902

The Cherry Orchard - Chekov

1904

Gorky exiled

1906 - 1913

Pravda published

5 March 1912

Celebrations of anniversary begins

21 February 1913

300th Romanov Anniversary

6 March 1913

The Pogrom of the Winter Palace - Vladimirov

1917

International Worker's Day established

1918

Ten Days that Shook the World - Reed

1919

Battleship Potemkin

1925

Cement - Gladkov

1925

Stalin welcomed Gorky back

1932

The Great Conveyer Belt - Ilin

1934

Quiet Flows the Don - Sholokhov

1934

Gorky put under house arrest

1934

The Soviet Hercules

1935

Gorky dies

1937

Revolution - Kiriakov

1937

Tanker "Derbent" - Krymov

1938

The Don Flows Home to the Sea - Kolokhov

1940

The Virgin Lands Campaign

1950

Just Marrie, Virgin Lands - Nekrasov

1955

Doctor Zhivago (banned)

1957

Babiyy Yar - Yevtushenko

1961

Yuri Garagin - first man in space

1961

One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich

1962

Anna Karenina - Tolstoy

1977

Serfs

Industry

Terror & Suppression

Third Section

1825 - 1880

Set up by Nicholas I 1825 as secret police in 1825. Began with 16 agents, but by 1855, there were 40. When abolished, role went to police.

26,000 Passports granted

1859

Publications in Ukraine banned

1863

Censorship become responsibility of Ministry of the Interior

1863

Press allowed to discuss government policy

1865

Ministry of Interior allowed to ban discussion on certain topics

1873

Revolutionary activity increased

1873 - 1877

Russian only language allowed in schools

1876

Existing Ukrainian books removed from schools

1876

Trial of the 193

1877

Trial of the 50

1877

Emigration of 225,000 Jews

1880 - 1894

Series of Progroms

1881 - 1883

Statute concerning Measures for the Protection of State Security

1881

& Law on Exceptional Measures - Government able to confiscate property, suppress publications, arrest & imprison people.

Provisional/Temporary Rules

1882

Banned Jews from holding administrative office, owning land, running schools & marrying a Christian.

State gained control over universities

1884

Anti-Semitic Laws

1887 - 1893

Attempted Assassination of Alexander III

1887

Army called out 19 times

1893

Army called out 50 times

1899

Army called out 522 times

1902

Progrom against Jews

1903

Progrom against Jews

1905

Bloody Sunday

1905

Progrom against Jews

1906

Sovnarkom banned all other political parties

January 1918 - July 1918

Cheka executed 50,000

1918

Cheka had 120 employees

1918

Fundamental Law of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic

July 1918

Declared Russia to be a one-party state, with the Bolsheviks being that sole party.

Lenin shot by Fanya Kaplan

August 1918

Head of Petrograd Cheka murdered

August 1918

Lenin ordered terror against Kulaks, priests & counter-revolutionaries

August 1918

Kronstadt Mutiny

1921

Cheka had 142,000 employees

1921

Cheka renamed to OGPU

1922

First Five Year Plan

1928 - 1934

Shakhty trial

1928

2 million Kulaks existing

1931

Sergei Kirov assassinated

1934

12 million zeks died in labour camps

1936 - 1950

First show trial

1936

Second show trial

1937

Great Purge

1937 - 1938

Third show trial

1938

Khrushchev denounced Stalin

1956

Religion

Series of Pogroms affecting 12 cities by Holy League

1881

Holy League banned

1882

The Temporary Rules

1882