Set up by Nicholas I 1825 as secret police in 1825. Began with 16 agents, but by 1855, there were 40. When abolished, role went to police.
& Law on Exceptional Measures - Government able to confiscate property, suppress publications, arrest & imprison people.
Banned Jews from holding administrative office, owning land, running schools & marrying a Christian.
Declared Russia to be a one-party state, with the Bolsheviks being that sole party.