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Personal Life

Birth of Oliver Cromwell

04/25/1599

Cromwell was born in Huntingdon, his mother was Katherine Cromewll and Thomas Cromwell who were both linked to the tudor house. He was one of ten however he was the only boy to survive infancy but had seven sisters. He went to the local grammar school before going to Cambridge but left following the death of his father.

Marriage

08/22/1620

Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier in London, they had nine children but three died in childhood. Elizabeth's family had strong connections with puritan gentry families.

Cromwell's death

09/3/1658

Following malaria and septicemia cromwell died in London and was buried following an elaborate funeral at Westminster Abbey.

Political Life

Became MP at Huntington

1628 - 1629

Cromwell became the member of parliament for Huntingdon in the parliament of 1628-1629. He made very little contribution to the parliament and was not very well received by his peers.

Became MP at Cambridge

1640 - 1641

In order to finance the bishops wars Charles called a parliament for only three weeks (the short parliament) during which Cromwell was the member for Cambridge.
He also was the MP for Cambridge during the long parliament, he was linked to the house of Lords and was involved in the presentation of some policy, such as the root and branch petition.

King tried and executed

Dec 1648

MPs who wanted to negotiate were not allowed attendance to the parliament in 1648 the remaining MPs formed a group known as the Rump who tried Charles for treason. Cromwell was the third to sign the death warrant for Charles, leading to his death on 30th January 1649.

Dissolved the Rump Parliament

Jan 1649

Following the death of Charles the Rump parliament continued of which Cromwell was a member, he tried to regroup the original Royal Independents but failed so dissolved the parliament.

Barebone's Parliament

1653

The last meeting before Cromwell became lord protector. Those at the parliament were chosen by Cromwell and the army. A small group of 13 members acted as a council of state who was responsible for foreign policy and the administration of the UK.

First Protectorate Parliament

Sept 1654 - Jan 1655

A parliament summoned by Cromwell with the aim of passing 84 bills he had drawn up. But the MPs would not agree so it was dissolved.

Rule of the Major-Generals

Aug 1655 - Jan 1657

A period of military government in which England was divided into 11 regions which were governed by a Major General who answered to Cromwell

2nd Protectorate Parliament

Sept 1656 - Feb 1658

Reluctantly called by Cromwell after advice from the Major Generals who wanted to raise money for the Anglo Spanish war. The parliament was held under the Instrument of Government through which thirty members from Scotland and Ireland were required and royalists and Catholics were not allowed to stand. The Milita Bill, Humble petition and advice, and Naylor case occupied the first session.

Humble petition and advice

02/23/1657

Offered Hereditary monarchy to Cromwell, asserted Parliaments control over taxation and to provide an independent council to advise Cromwell however he refused.

Cromwell's role in the Civil Wars

Civil war begins

1642

Failure to resolve the issues raised in the Long parliament led to the beginning of the Civil war the first battle of which Cromwell and his army arrived too late to partake in.

Lieutenant General of the New model Army

1643

Cromwell rose from the rank of captain to Lord Lieutenant general in three years

Lieutenant genetal of the eastern association army

August 1643

Cromwell was appointed as Lieutenant General of the horse under the commander Earl of Manchester, they clashed over Cromwell's choice of officers.

Battle of Marston Moor

07/02/1644

The parliamentary army surprised the royalist army by attacking at dusk, the battle lasted for a few hours before the royalists surrendered after losing 3000 men and the north of England was lost to the king. Cromwell himself defeated the royalist cavalry becoming a more respected general.

Battle of Naseby

06/14/1645

Cromwell changed the starting position of their men to a better position to begin the battle, Cromwell's horse possibly saved the battle and chased the royalists away from naiseby and captured many men and supplies. This marked the downfall of the royalist army.

Second Civil war begins

Feb 1648

Following revolts all over the country a second civil war broke out that concluded with Charles' execution.

Battle of Preston

08/14/1648

Cromwell used tactics and preparation to overwhelm the royalists leading to their losses of 2000 and the capture of 9000

Drogheda

9/3/1649 - 9/11/1649

An area of Ireland held by Irish and English royalists until Cromwell and his men besieged the town, the town surrendered but Cromwell did not accept this until he had sufficient men inside the town to claim it.

Battle of Dunbar

9/3/1650

A royalist army was defeated by Cromwell and his men in Scotland. He set up his men during the night and then attacked at dawn to surprise the enemy.

Battle of Worcester

9/3/1651

The final battle of the Civil war, 16000 royalists were defeated by 28000 parliamentarians. Charles let his troops rest for five days in Worcester which proved to be a mistake.