* not socialist bec the conditions were not present in peasant country, poor backward, ignorant and with a minor industrial proletariat.
* had more profound practical consequences than the French Rev, meant to bring about the world proletariat revolution
* a radical change that led to a diff economic and political system---communist based on Marx and Engels ideas
* ironic be they thought this Rev would occur in a highly industrialized country like Germany not in a feudal-agricultural one.
* it proved to be the savior of liberal capitalism, both by enabling the West to win the Second World War against Hitler's
Germany and by providing the incentive for capitalism to reform itself and, through the Soviet Union's apparent immunity to the Great Depression,the incentive to abandon the belief in free market orthodoxy.
* It occurred at the same time that the Germans resumed unrestricted submarine warfare
* also when the US entered the war
* End of Romanov Monarchy.
Nicholas II PROBLEMS BEFORE WWI:
* Russia was an agricultural country w/ little industrialization
* Peasant majority (no economic freedom or landownership)
* Growing working class bec of beginnings of industrialization of Russia under bleak conditions similar to England in 1840s
* Minority populations(Poles) nationalist ambition of self rule.
* Minority religions (Jews) hated the regime which persecuted them
* People aspired to individual rights and representative gov as in Europe
PROBLEMS DURING WWI:
* (war front 1915): Russian army unprepared so crushing defeats (inadequate industry to wage war, shortage of rifles, ammunition, clothing, no equipment, lack of food)
* made up of peasants, war weary, resentful, unwilling to fight,deserters (they had left the land which was not being cultivated food unavailable for soldiers and civilians)
* army officers (drawn from the nobility) incompetent: army morale collapsed=mutinies
* (home front): shortage of skilled labor caused by an ill planned mobilization led to shortages of critical supplies (fuel-bitter cold) and chaos in their transportation (not proper transport system wrecked by war) and distribution
* people starved while Czar led a corrupted life
* cost of goods rose dramatically bec the gov printed worthless money to pay for the war.
* food shortages/bread (peasants refused to sell grain for paper money)
* wages fell 20 percent=strikes
* GOVERNMENT AUTOCRACY (one pers gov) corruption (Rasputin:religious mystic close to the czarina, he of German origin suspected of treason, knew how to help the Czar's son who had hemofilia, only son, czarevich disease prevents blood clothing, state secret). He assassinated by aristocrats=criticism
* Czar 4 daughters, wife of German origin queen Victoria's grandaughter suspected the Czar under German influence suspected of treason
* No stable gov.(4 prime ministers dismissed, czar with the army, the Duma expressed outrage at the incompetence and repressiveness of gov)
* Imperial decree ordered conscription of 400, 000 for civilian labor=violent resistance.
CONSEQUENCES OF ALL THIS=REVOLUTION