Cold War-Korean War-Suez Canal-Cuba

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1945 Blocks-Communism-Capitalist Democracies

1945

The Soviet Union controlled Eastern Europe and occupied the German territory surrounding Berlin (the city had been divided into 4 zones among FRance, US, USSR, GB.
The West urged to establish democracies in Eastern Europe.
COLD WAR: involved no actual conflict between US and USSR but there were armed conflicts though not between them. The war was a struggle against internal and external communist threat.

1946 Iron Curtain Churchill

1946

1946 Atomic Energy Act US

1946

Transferring the authority over atomic energy from the War Department, which had developed the bomb, to a civilian committee of 5 members appointed by the President

Truman Doctrine bill passed to aid Greece-Turkey/Containment policy

1947

Truman sent military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey
Policy of the US to support free ppl who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities
US no longer isolationist policy

1947-1949 Greek Civil War supported by Russia

1947 - 1949

The rebellion was communist in nature and demanded territories in Turkey to build naval bases.

1957 Soviet Spy network revelations

3/1947

Truman FBI to investigate federal employees

1947 Marshal Plan US ERP (European recovery program)

6/1947

To aid France, England, Italy and GErmany who were bankcrupt (possible communist takeover poverty)loans were not enough.
Secretary of state Marshall: US would assist European nations rebuild their economies (economies would be tied to the American dollar and they would have to adopt a Capitalist economy.
Russia condemned the plan.

1947 Taft-Harley Act

6/1947

Against Unions to avoid the possibility of socialist leaders to grow politically Against Unions to avoid the possibility of socialist leaders to grow politically
Forbade unfair union practices, boycotts ans strikes, employers could sew unions fro damages caused by strikes and forbade unions to contribute to political parties

1948 Seizure of Chechoslovakia

1948

Congress accepted to pass the ERP (european recovery program proposed by Marshall

1948 Republic of South Korea

1948

Recognize by the UN and 30 other members states also US.

1948 West Germany Federal Republic (US)

1948

US and allied agreed to consolidate its zones and included them in the ERP (Russia had refused to settle the German Situation)

1949 Fair Deal (Truman)

1/1949

Continuation of domestic reform initiated by New Deal. Truman new deal: rise minimum wage, expand social security, extend rent control, new housing units, enact price support for farmers.

1949 12 Nation North Atlantic Treaty (US)+NATO

7/1949

NATO: NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY that established that An attack on any member would be an attack upon all. (12)
GB, France, Canada, Spain, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Norway, Iceland
NATORGANIZATION: (american led cold war military alliance)that could draw up plans for the defense of member nations (Greece, Turkey later Joined. FIRS TIME EUROPEAN PEACETIME ALLIANCE grew out of fear of soviet bombs

1949 Soviets Detonate an atom bomb

9/1949

Constructed using secret info stolen from the US and GB
Truman said he would build an hydrogen bomb

1949 Communist Seizure of China

10/1949

General Chiang was led by Mao Tse tung from the mainland (there had been corruption in Chiang's Nationalist Party)Truman did not intervene.

1950 USSR walks out of the UN

1950

Bec the UN refused to grant a seat to communist Chia

1950 North Korea attacks Republic of South Corea

1950

Japanese had annexed Korea in 1910 but surrendered it to the Allies in 1945 after WWII. Russian troops had penetrated Korea down to the 38th parallel and established a communist gov.
USSR supported this attack not the UN. Thus Truman sent troops and the UN sent more troops under General MacArthur, troops repelled the invasion

1950 Mcarthy's false accusations

2/1950

Republican senator: said he had a list with 250 names of communists in the State Department. False accusations.
McCarthyism=demagoguery and false accusation

1950 North Korea attacks Republic of South Corea

6/1950 - 1953

Japanese had annexed Korea in 1910 but surrendered it to the Allies in 1945 after WWII. Russian troops had penetrated Korea down to the 38th parallel and established a communist gov.
USSR supported this attack not the UN.
China then sent force to drive back UN forces back to the 38th parallel.
Since an all out War with China may bring Russia into it that had agreed to defend China Truman ordered MacArthur to limit defense of South Korea but he refused and Truman relieved him of his command
This war had no public support.

1951 Division of Korea was officialized

1951

1953 Eisenhower Doctrine

1953

Congress authorized the president to extend military and economic aid to guard the Middle Eats from communist expansion

1953 Eisenhower Armistice with Korea North and South and China

1953

It was agreed on the separation of north and south korea at the 38th parallel

1957 Soviets launch the Sputnik satellite

1957

1958 NASA (National Aeronautic and Space Act)

1958

Set up civilian authority to direct the exploration of space (race to avoid espionage by satellites)

1961-1989 Berlin Wall

1961

To prevent East Germans from escaping into the West.

1961 First man on Space by Russia

1961

1962 Soviets Start to build missile sites in Cuba

1962

1969 USA puts a man on the moon

1969

Suez Canal

1946 Churchill post war speech Iron Curtain

1946

1947 British Leaves India

1947

1948 Britain Leaves Israel/Palestine

1948

Faced with violent resistance from Arabs and Jews she left

1956 Suez Canal Crisis (dates back to 1875) age of Empire

7/1956

After the independence of India and Pakistan
Canal mostly controlled by France (financed the construction) and GB, had bee built by Egyptians. Nasser the military officer and Arab Nationalist nationalized the Sue Canal Company (gov confiscates an enterprise)

1956 Egypt is invaded by Israel, Britain and France

11/1956

Worldwide condemnation as a reassertion of colonialism and the US also condemned it, Eisenhower against it had not been told he had interests in wider relations with ethe arab world. The Br withdrew without informing the French. This is seen as the definitive end of Br as a global power as well as France, in the future GB adventure abroad would be as a leading member of the UN
The UN ordered to halt fighting and sent troops.
Prime minister Eden saw in Nasser another dictator like Mussolini. Canal had new importance for the passageway for oil to get to Europe.
In the future Britain had to side with the US, no longer could act on the world stage as an independent power.

1956 Franco-British forces withdrew

12/1956

1961 South Africa becomes a Republic

1961

Cuba Crisis

1959 Fidel Castro comes to Power

1959

Overthrew Batista who had been in power as a capitalist dictator for 25 years (involved in drug trafficking, gambling and prostitution. Most of the capital invested was American, they did not care about this dictator bec it benefited them.
US property was seized and Castro became and ally of the Soviet Union.

1961 Invasion of Cuba by the US (Kennedy)

1961

Fidel Castro turned Cuba into a communist dictatorship which was 90 miles away from the coast of Florida. US helped Cuban exiles rebel against Fidel.
This invasion made Cuban and Soviet Gov came closer.
Before Castro Batista (capitalist dictator) for 25 years
Invasion failed invaders were bogged down in marches.
Premier Khrushev of the USSR threatened to come to Cuba's aid if the US did not halt aggression.

1962 Soviets build missile sites in Cuba

1962

Kennedy demands dismantling the bases and missiles removed.
Ordered US navy to quarantine any ships carrying military weapons to Cuba (ships would not be allowed to reach Cuba)(blockade)
US showed aerial pictures of the missile bases and Russia had to accept they had them.
Kennedy said that any attack of missiles launched from Cuba against any nation on the Western hemisphere as and attack by the USSR requiring full response by the US on the USSR.
Russia agreed to remove missiles if the US did not invade Cuba