History of American Education

By Miaowen Chang 2014 for Startalk 8 Course EDUC 544

Mid 17th Century~18th Century

1640s~1790s Puritans

Approx. 1640 AD - Approx. 1790 AD

New England colonies were organized by Puritans
-teach religious beliefs
-Boston, schoolmaster
-Massachusetts General Court 1647 (50 families/100families/individual with$$)
-a right or responsibility?

Late 18th Century

1776- Post Revolutionary War- A Basic School

1776 AD - 1820 AD

-Served ages 3021 (most were 5-13)
-Curriculum: Basic survival stuff (R, WR, AR)
-For extra money-Latin, music, geometry, surveying, elocution
-Peer teaching (prenticeship)

19th Century

1820s Common School & Private Academies

1820 AD - 1829 AD

Common Schools
-Registered with state
-knowledge, not just survival skills
Academies (ex: Exeter & Phillips)
-No state involvement aside from charters

1830s The Common School Redefined

1830 AD - 1839 AD

Friends of Education (Horace Mann & Henry Barnard) redefine the common school
-Public shcool organized around townships (50 families)
-State-licensed teachers
-Standardized methods & curricula
-Full time, state licensed administrators
-Grades borken out by age

1867 Department of Education (D.O.E.)

1867 AD

-To promote "the Anglo-Saxon frame of mind"
-To share best methods and curricula

1871 University of Michigan-Inspect High School

1871 AD

-No test, fairness
-College prepareness

1892 Commitee of Ten (NEA)-A Standardized Education

1892 AD

NEA (National Education Association)
-Public Standardized Education
-8 Years of Elementary Education, 4 Years of Secondary Education
-All courses should last the same number of minutes
~ set in 1893
-Left Out: Art & Music; PE; Vocation Education

20th Century

1909 Carnegie Foundation-Standard Unit

1909 AD

The Advancement of Teaching developed the "standard unit." -50 minutes of actual instruction time each hour in a classroom.

1918 Return of the NEA

1918

The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
-Health
-Commnad of Fundamental Processes
-Worthy Home Membership
-Vocation
-Civic Education
-Worthy Use of Leisure Time
-Ethical Character

Purpose: To ensure the continuation of democracy in America

1920s The Cardinal Principles of Education

1920 AD - 1969 AD

-The Scopes Monkey Trial 1925/Tennessee Law (Creationism)
-First SAT 1926
-John Dewey 1928/Pragatism/Instrumentalism
-Education is not delivery of knowledge but understanding students' real experiences (experiential education) Experiences is all one knows.
-Only through real Doing can there be real Learning!

1930s The 8 Year Study-Dick and Jane Basal Readers

1930 AD - 1939 AD

The Great Depression
-Population mobile
-WPA brings artists and storytellers inot schools
The 8 Year Study
Dick and Jane basal readers (textbooks)

1940s WWII-GI Bill

1940 - 1949

-Lots of drop-outs
-More room for women
-The change of higher education demographics

1950s Baby Boom-Red Scare-SPUTNIK

1950 - 1959

Baby Boom
-Need more teachers and materials
-TV a very shared language and set of experiences.

Red Scare
More College Educated Parents
1957 SPUTNIK Russian Soviet
-Back-to-Basics movement gains steam

1960s Space Race-Bilingual Education

1960 - 1969

-The arts in Society and School
-dick and Jane get a black friend
-1961 The birth of bilingual education (Cuban families)
-1965 ESEA
-1965 The Higher Education Act

1970s Equality Issues

1970 - 1979

-Sesame Street
-Title IX: no discrimination in sports
-PL 94-142: The Education of All Handicapped Children Act
New Math-the Metric System
1977 Report on Declining SAT Scores
Late 70s: Back-to-Basics movement

Late 20th Century

1990s Internet Revolution

1990 - 2050

Evolution of Education Methods
-Class V.S. Home
-Interactivity increased in class
-Flip of classroom