History of Physical Education

Turnvereine Movement

Friedrich L. Jahn opens first Turnplatz

1811 CE

"Turnplatz": open-air gymnasium

Charles Beck studies the Turner arts

1811 CE

Jahn becomes state teacher of gymnastics in Berlin

1814 CE

First Turner's group of America

1848 CE

All-German gymnastics union formed

1848 CE

Charles Beck develops physical education program

Beck becomes first official PE teacher in America

1824 CE

Charles Follen, friend of Beck, establishes the first college gym in the US

1826 CE

Follen establishes the first equipped gymnasium in Boston

1826 CE

Beck translates Jahn's "Treatise on Gymnasticks" to English

1828 CE

Edward Hitchocock Jr. becomes the first formal, collegiate phys. educator

1861 CE

YMCA Movement

YMCA is founded by George Williams in London

1844 CE

First American YMCA formed in Boston

1851 CE

International Training School (YMCA) is developed in Massachusetts

1883 CE

James Naismath invents basketball

1891 CE

William G. Morgan invents volleyball under the name "Mintonette"

1895 CE

Civil War & Industrial Revolution

Baseball gains national popularity in the US

1860 CE - 1870 CE

Mary Ewing Outerbridge introduces Tennis to the US

1874 CE

Dudley Sargent is appointed assistant professor for physical training at Harvard

1879 CE

Later develops universal test for speed, strength, and endurance

Softball is invented in Chicago

1887 CE

Boston Conference is held to examine/evaluate activities of PE

1889 CE

Expansion into Public Schooling

California passes first state legislature requiring physical education

1866 CE

Physical education recognized as curricular field by NEA

1891 CE

"NEA": National Education Association

Teachers College offers first master-degree program in PE

1901 CE

Henry S. Curtis and Luther H. Gulick create the PAA

1906 CE

"PAA" = Playground Association of America

Michigan and Ohio establish intramural sports programs

1913 CE