French Revolution


1300 Revolution: Revolve or Spin


14th century

1300 Peasants Revolt


14th c. Action against established order. Treason: not loyal to authority.
Rebellion: renewal of conflict, rebellion against established order or lawful authority. 1st popular uprising they were not aware they were being revolutionary.

1500 Protestant Reformation


16th C: revolutionary event: radical changes Europe split into 2 Catholic and Protestant, a new order was created.
RESTORATION: no radical change but a going back to pure uncontaminated forms (protestant)
Contemporaries not called it revolutions.
By wanted to go back to the past they created sth completely new.
REVOLT: not as peasants revolt meaning: overturning of established authority (wheel of fortune)

1500-1600 Spinning of planets

1500 - 1600

16th and 17th
Planets and cycle of time

1642-1649 Civil Wars in En

1642 - 1649

Revolutionary for a short time confined to En. The Great Rebellion. Parliamentarians against royalists.
God's Revolutions 17th the way God made the world go round, his will.

1688 Great and Glorious Revolution


James II (Catholic) Replaced by P by a protestant monarch
Just a palace coup: ppl organized a seizure of power. At the time REVOLUTION: bec the wheel had turned and lawful authority was restored, no radical change.

1787 Estates General Summoned


Louis VI would hold elections (first since 1614) under continued pressure he agreed to summon representatives of the 3 Estates.

1789 Egyptian expedition


Campaign into Egypt British Fleet Nelson defeats Napoleon Battle of Nile aimed at hitting the power of the British on the Eastern Mediterranean (Gibraltar) bec they had access to India

1789 June National Assembly


No longer classes represented here in the 3rd Estate, they represented the NATION (OF THE PPL living together under one territory)First Revolutionary breakthrough assembly of individual deputies

1789 14th July French Revolution Storming of the Bastille

7/1789 - 1799

Radical political change in the French gov that involved the overthrow o the inst of monarchy and the creation of a new system of gov.
The concept did not exist before this event.
Ver Historical Development of the word:
Here: radical brake with the past, change.

Bringing about of a new order, changing existing state of affairs, profound changes.
It spread worldwide, left ideologies, a way of conceiving the world, universal mission to overthrow other monarchs
Bequeathed 2 ideologies: LIBERALISM (economic system in which the gov does not intervene Kant) AND NATIONALISM.
France was a peasant society still.
Indirect taxation hits the poor the hardest
LIBERALISM: economy free from state control vs restrictions (mercantile)lack of state regulations on the market
moral aspect: all men are equal vs divine right, same natural rights
political: democracy free to choose and be chosen vs absolute monarchs, representative system of government
The Bastille was stormed by the people of France not the bourgeoisie (oppressed, rich and enlightened) only
the aristocracy:(parlaments)Estates General summoning and Third Estate=National Assembly
bourgoise challenged the aristocratic leadership
peasants: bread riots (storming of Bastille)
urban working class: wanted to prosper economically
inflation, enlightenment ideas

1789 August Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen


It abolished all forms of privilege and declared that all men were equal.freedom of speech, of religion, of the press, due process of law and prohibition of cruel punishment

9/1789 -1791 National Constituent Assembly

9/1789 - 1791

1791 Royal flia flees to Austria they are captured and imprissioned


At this time masses of people began to rise asking for bread and lower prices

1791 Constitution Achieved


Proposed a moderate transformations a constitutional monarchy (bourgeois phase)based on liberty equality and fraternity
king would be below the law.
2 political divisions bequeathed RIGHT: conservative, wanted small changes gradual
LEFT: had more popular support, wanted radical changes abolition of monarchy
REACTIONARIES: Return to the past, to a most extreme form of the past
All church privileges abolished

1792-95 National Convention Begins a Republic 2nd stage

1792 - 1795

Constituent Assembly became the Nat. Conv.
Monarchy overthrown (leadership of Jacobins)
extreme egalitarianism

1792-93; 95-97 War of First Coalition

1792 - 1797

Austria and Prussia formed a coalition against France to restore the Old Regime (joined by Britain, Netherlands and Spain. During this period there was fear of treason, fears of plotting with foreign powers, aristocrats fled and plotted against the republic.
Britain joined when French invaded Belgium and set up a neighboring republic.

1793 King is executed


1793-94 Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Under leadership of Robespierre and a Comitee of Public Safety. Bec first stages of the war against the Coalition did not go well. Revolutionaries thought they were being betrayed. The ppl of Paris started massive killings.massacre

1793 Napoleon Relieves the Seige of Toulon


In the South of France he made British troops retreat when under command or the artillery. He became general at 25

1795-1799 The Directory 3rd stage

1795 - 1799

Conservative reaction to Reign of Terror
Robespierre executed, became corrupted

1795-1817 Treasonable Pactices in GB

1795 - 1817

1795 Seditious meetings act passed in GB


To stop any revolution in GB which they feared, no large meetings could be held

1795 Napoleon puts down a Paris Uprising


helping to save the Directory by putting down a Paris popular uprising and was promoted to field general

1796 Napoleon defeats the Austrians


Drives them away from Italy creating 2 sister republics in Italy

1797 Napoleon Imposes peace treaties on Austria


1799 Combinatiions Act

1799 - 1825

Trade unions, associations of workers protects the workers rights.

1800 Act o Union Ireland (Great Britain)


IN case the French invaded Irealand

Napoleonic Wars

1798 Egypt Expeditioin


Rosetta Stone is discovered. But Nelson defeats him at the battle of the Nile. While he was in Egypt he heard that the directory was not doing well.

1799-1804 Consulate End of Republic

1799 - 1804

New constitution Napoleon's rule dictatorship, political radical, contempt for church hatred for kings
Authoritarian despotic regime with some democratic elements. The executive was in the power of 3 consuls, he proclaimed himself 1st consul

Restricted divorce to preserve the family. Legalized slavery to boost the economy of the Caribbean colonies, reestablished nobility, closed newspapers, censorship of theaters, took control of printing, controlled the mail, jailed political prisoners with no trial, executed people he suspected were plotting, against him, was a misogynist.
He welcomed home emigres willing to accept his regime, reestablished the Catholic church but the pope made concessions, protected religious minorities (protestants, jews emancipation), produced the CIVIL CODE or Napoleonic Code 1804, or Commercial law 1807 and of Penal law 1810 with detailed laws of private property establishing women as subordinates of men. Expanded education (ver TP)
Established the apparatus of French institutions as they exist today.

1799-1815 Napoleonic Wars

1799 - 1815

He drafted 2.6 million men to fight his wars. Wanted to have the largest army. Skillful use of artillery, use of elite cavalry, Mass armies style.Mean the beginning of the second British Empire and the domination in the high seas until WWII. They did not want territories but the control of key islands Malta, Gibraltar islands as basis to trade freely.
He left the universities, the normal school, the lycee, the french legal code, division of France into departments, units of local administration, unification of currency, of weights and measures (educational legal commercial and administrative system of France. Established the apparatus of French institutions as they exist today. He was a man o the revolution, the egalitarian ideas of the revolution made possible a man of the middle class to become so powerful, he was a nobody for the rest, an upstart. End of revolution? He was a man of the revolution so he embodied the revolution.
They could not agree on an executive (consulate) they were going back to traditions (Rome)Julius Caesar (ancient forms of gov)
The directory was his support he derived his support from it.

1799-1802 2nd Coalition

1799 - 1802

Portugal, GB, Austria, Russia, Ottoman Empire

1804 Napoleon Crowns Himself Emperor


Creates a Hereditary Empire

1805 3rd Coalition and Battle of Auterlitz/Battle of Trafalgar he was defeated


Defeated Austria and Russia

1806 4th Coalition


Prussia, Russia, Saxony defeated

1806 He created the Confederation of the Rhine


Holy Roman Empire Ceased to exist.

1806 Berlin Decree Continental System


Napoleon tried to fight Britain with economic warfare. His Berlin Decree of 1806 ordered the cessation of all commerce and communication with Britain. Napoleon’s economic plan to close
European markets to the British and weaken the British economy. all Continental ports closed to British ships; this embargo was
called the Continental System. The British also had difficulty exporting to the United States, which under President Thomas Jefferson (1801–
09) attempted to isolate itself from the European war. Britain responded to the Continental System with
a series of Orders in Council, which essentially put all French-ruled
Europe under a blockade, demanding that all exports from neutral
countries to Europe pass through Britain first

1807 Occupation of Portugal


1808-1814 Peninsular War Occupation of Spain

1808 - 1814

In his march to Portugal, Napoleon takes the King of Spain so in Argentina, with a weak Spain, primer govierno patrio. (1st national home-local gov) to preserve the gov until Ferdinand regained his power was the excuse. Bec the Spanish colonies did not owe allegiance to a French usurper
King of Spain Charles the IV (abdicated)and placed his brother Joseph on the throne instead of the king's son Ferdinand.

1809 5th Coalition


GB Austria. British sent a small army into Portugal.

4th Coalition


1811 Wellington drives French from Portugal


1812 Russian Campaign Napoleon


Refused to battle Napoleon and retreated further into their territory and burned everything scorched earth. When the French army retreated it was attacked from the rear.

1812-14 6th Coalition


GB, Russia, Prussia, Austria, Sweden

1813 Wellington drives Fr out of Spain + Battle of the Nations defeat Nap


1814 Congress of VIenna up to 1914 Long Peace (But for Crimean War)


Nationalism: groups of people who define themselves along common characteristics have the right to form a state, things they have in common leads them to form their own form of government (state). Nationality: linguistic or ethnic (big problem) Germans. The state: the political organization in this territory was sovereing over the territory. The congress of Vienna did not pay att to this, only to the sovereignty of the ruler. Principle of the congress of Vienna was not that of Nationality, it was the principle of legitimacy, which rule had the right to rule over which territory. Nation and nationality came to embody all that was revolutionary, democratic and liberal, it meant the right of peoples to give themselves their political constitution and to exercise freedom and sovereignty within their borders. The citizen was the person who was free in this nation, loyalty to the king=loyaty to the motherland or state:patriotism, la patria! When Nap freed the Italians from Austrians and the Poles from the Russians he instilled in them these ideas of France. From here come problems.
They had to settle the map of Europe, another war could not be afford or the monarchies would end. Out of this GB got her 2 Empire she kept until end o WWI (Cape Town South Africa later, Silon from Portuguese Skrilanka today, seize strategist locations maritime, Malta in Europe South of Italy, control of south and western Mediterranean, Caribean, (the first Empire had been that they lost with the Am colonies)

Holly Alliance (Russia, Austria Prussia destined to help all those monarchs who were threatened. Argentina becomes independent (1816)
Prussia increased territory and became a predominant power in NW Germany. Confederation of Rhine=German confederation but center of Europe remained weak, loose disorganized.
The congress created a loose German confederation in central Europe unified along lines of legitimacy. France was not punished (no lines of nationality for territorial division)
No war involving more than 2 powers until WWI
After the congress of Vienna the British took measure to avoid a revolution, the spirit of the French Rev did not survive there. (Rule of Law)

1814 Allies enter Paris and Nap Abdicates-Monarchy restored to 1824


Monarchy restored Lous XVIII. Napoleon exile into Elba for a year. When he returned his rule lasted a 100 days.

1815 7th Coalition


Napoleon escapes and is defeated at Waterloo