14th c. Action against established order. Treason: not loyal to authority.
Rebellion: renewal of conflict, rebellion against established order or lawful authority. 1st popular uprising they were not aware they were being revolutionary.
16th C: revolutionary event: radical changes Europe split into 2 Catholic and Protestant, a new order was created.
RESTORATION: no radical change but a going back to pure uncontaminated forms (protestant)
Contemporaries not called it revolutions.
By wanted to go back to the past they created sth completely new.
REVOLT: not as peasants revolt meaning: overturning of established authority (wheel of fortune)
16th and 17th
Planets and cycle of time
Revolutionary for a short time confined to En. The Great Rebellion. Parliamentarians against royalists.
God's Revolutions 17th the way God made the world go round, his will.
James II (Catholic) Replaced by P by a protestant monarch
Just a palace coup: ppl organized a seizure of power. At the time REVOLUTION: bec the wheel had turned and lawful authority was restored, no radical change.
Louis VI would hold elections (first since 1614) under continued pressure he agreed to summon representatives of the 3 Estates.
Campaign into Egypt British Fleet Nelson defeats Napoleon Battle of Nile aimed at hitting the power of the British on the Eastern Mediterranean (Gibraltar) bec they had access to India
No longer classes represented here in the 3rd Estate, they represented the NATION (OF THE PPL living together under one territory)First Revolutionary breakthrough assembly of individual deputies
Radical political change in the French gov that involved the overthrow o the inst of monarchy and the creation of a new system of gov.
The concept did not exist before this event.
Ver Historical Development of the word:
Here: radical brake with the past, change.
Bringing about of a new order, changing existing state of affairs, profound changes.
It spread worldwide, left ideologies, a way of conceiving the world, universal mission to overthrow other monarchs
Bequeathed 2 ideologies: LIBERALISM (economic system in which the gov does not intervene Kant) AND NATIONALISM.
France was a peasant society still.
Indirect taxation hits the poor the hardest
LIBERALISM: economy free from state control vs restrictions (mercantile)lack of state regulations on the market
moral aspect: all men are equal vs divine right, same natural rights
political: democracy free to choose and be chosen vs absolute monarchs, representative system of government
The Bastille was stormed by the people of France not the bourgeoisie (oppressed, rich and enlightened) only
the aristocracy:(parlaments)Estates General summoning and Third Estate=National Assembly
bourgoise challenged the aristocratic leadership
peasants: bread riots (storming of Bastille)
urban working class: wanted to prosper economically
inflation, enlightenment ideas
It abolished all forms of privilege and declared that all men were equal.freedom of speech, of religion, of the press, due process of law and prohibition of cruel punishment
At this time masses of people began to rise asking for bread and lower prices
Proposed a moderate transformations a constitutional monarchy (bourgeois phase)based on liberty equality and fraternity
king would be below the law.
2 political divisions bequeathed RIGHT: conservative, wanted small changes gradual
LEFT: had more popular support, wanted radical changes abolition of monarchy
REACTIONARIES: Return to the past, to a most extreme form of the past
All church privileges abolished
Constituent Assembly became the Nat. Conv.
Monarchy overthrown (leadership of Jacobins)
Austria and Prussia formed a coalition against France to restore the Old Regime (joined by Britain, Netherlands and Spain. During this period there was fear of treason, fears of plotting with foreign powers, aristocrats fled and plotted against the republic.
Britain joined when French invaded Belgium and set up a neighboring republic.
Under leadership of Robespierre and a Comitee of Public Safety. Bec first stages of the war against the Coalition did not go well. Revolutionaries thought they were being betrayed. The ppl of Paris started massive killings.massacre
In the South of France he made British troops retreat when under command or the artillery. He became general at 25
Conservative reaction to Reign of Terror
Robespierre executed, became corrupted
helping to save the Directory by putting down a Paris popular uprising and was promoted to field general
To stop any revolution in GB which they feared, no large meetings could be held
Drives them away from Italy creating 2 sister republics in Italy
Trade unions, associations of workers protects the workers rights.
IN case the French invaded Irealand
Rosetta Stone is discovered. But Nelson defeats him at the battle of the Nile. While he was in Egypt he heard that the directory was not doing well.
New constitution Napoleon's rule dictatorship, political radical, contempt for church hatred for kings
Authoritarian despotic regime with some democratic elements. The executive was in the power of 3 consuls, he proclaimed himself 1st consul
THINGS HE DID:
Restricted divorce to preserve the family. Legalized slavery to boost the economy of the Caribbean colonies, reestablished nobility, closed newspapers, censorship of theaters, took control of printing, controlled the mail, jailed political prisoners with no trial, executed people he suspected were plotting, against him, was a misogynist.
He welcomed home emigres willing to accept his regime, reestablished the Catholic church but the pope made concessions, protected religious minorities (protestants, jews emancipation), produced the CIVIL CODE or Napoleonic Code 1804, or Commercial law 1807 and of Penal law 1810 with detailed laws of private property establishing women as subordinates of men. Expanded education (ver TP)
Established the apparatus of French institutions as they exist today.
Portugal, GB, Austria, Russia, Ottoman Empire
He drafted 2.6 million men to fight his wars. Wanted to have the largest army. Skillful use of artillery, use of elite cavalry, Mass armies style.Mean the beginning of the second British Empire and the domination in the high seas until WWII. They did not want territories but the control of key islands Malta, Gibraltar islands as basis to trade freely.
He left the universities, the normal school, the lycee, the french legal code, division of France into departments, units of local administration, unification of currency, of weights and measures (educational legal commercial and administrative system of France. Established the apparatus of French institutions as they exist today. He was a man o the revolution, the egalitarian ideas of the revolution made possible a man of the middle class to become so powerful, he was a nobody for the rest, an upstart. End of revolution? He was a man of the revolution so he embodied the revolution.
They could not agree on an executive (consulate) they were going back to traditions (Rome)Julius Caesar (ancient forms of gov)
The directory was his support he derived his support from it.
Creates a Hereditary Empire
Defeated Austria and Russia
Napoleon tried to fight Britain with economic warfare. His Berlin Decree of 1806 ordered the cessation of all commerce and communication with Britain. Napoleon’s economic plan to close
European markets to the British and weaken the British economy. all Continental ports closed to British ships; this embargo was
called the Continental System. The British also had difficulty exporting to the United States, which under President Thomas Jefferson (1801–
09) attempted to isolate itself from the European war. Britain responded to the Continental System with
a series of Orders in Council, which essentially put all French-ruled
Europe under a blockade, demanding that all exports from neutral
countries to Europe pass through Britain first
Holy Roman Empire Ceased to exist.
Prussia, Russia, Saxony defeated
In his march to Portugal, Napoleon takes the King of Spain so in Argentina, with a weak Spain, primer govierno patrio. (1st national home-local gov) to preserve the gov until Ferdinand regained his power was the excuse. Bec the Spanish colonies did not owe allegiance to a French usurper
King of Spain Charles the IV (abdicated)and placed his brother Joseph on the throne instead of the king's son Ferdinand.
GB Austria. British sent a small army into Portugal.
GB, Russia, Prussia, Austria, Sweden
Refused to battle Napoleon and retreated further into their territory and burned everything scorched earth. When the French army retreated it was attacked from the rear.
Nationalism: groups of people who define themselves along common characteristics have the right to form a state, things they have in common leads them to form their own form of government (state). Nationality: linguistic or ethnic (big problem) Germans. The state: the political organization in this territory was sovereing over the territory. The congress of Vienna did not pay att to this, only to the sovereignty of the ruler. Principle of the congress of Vienna was not that of Nationality, it was the principle of legitimacy, which rule had the right to rule over which territory. Nation and nationality came to embody all that was revolutionary, democratic and liberal, it meant the right of peoples to give themselves their political constitution and to exercise freedom and sovereignty within their borders. The citizen was the person who was free in this nation, loyalty to the king=loyaty to the motherland or state:patriotism, la patria! When Nap freed the Italians from Austrians and the Poles from the Russians he instilled in them these ideas of France. From here come problems.
They had to settle the map of Europe, another war could not be afford or the monarchies would end. Out of this GB got her 2 Empire she kept until end o WWI (Cape Town South Africa later, Silon from Portuguese Skrilanka today, seize strategist locations maritime, Malta in Europe South of Italy, control of south and western Mediterranean, Caribean, (the first Empire had been that they lost with the Am colonies)
Holly Alliance (Russia, Austria Prussia destined to help all those monarchs who were threatened. Argentina becomes independent (1816)
Prussia increased territory and became a predominant power in NW Germany. Confederation of Rhine=German confederation but center of Europe remained weak, loose disorganized.
The congress created a loose German confederation in central Europe unified along lines of legitimacy. France was not punished (no lines of nationality for territorial division)
No war involving more than 2 powers until WWI
After the congress of Vienna the British took measure to avoid a revolution, the spirit of the French Rev did not survive there. (Rule of Law)
Monarchy restored Lous XVIII. Napoleon exile into Elba for a year. When he returned his rule lasted a 100 days.
Napoleon escapes and is defeated at Waterloo