Nationalism: groups of people who define themselves along common characteristics have the right to form a state, things they have in common leads them to form their own form of government (state). Nationality: linguistic or ethnic (big problem) Germans. The state: the political organization in this territory was sovereing over the territory. The congress of Vienna did not pay att to this, only to the sovereignty of the ruler. Principle of the congress of Vienna was not that of Nationality, it was the principle of legitimacy, which rule had the right to rule over which territory. Nation and nationality came to embody all that was revolutionary, democratic and liberal, it meant the right of peoples to give themselves their political constitution and to exercise freedom and sovereignty within their borders. The citizen was the person who was free in this nation, loyalty to the king=loyaty to the motherland or state:patriotism, la patria! When Nap freed the Italians from Austrians and the Poles from the Russians he instilled in them these ideas of France. From here come problems.
They had to settle the map of Europe, another war could not be afford or the monarchies would end. Out of this GB got her 2 Empire she kept until end o WWI (Cape Town South Africa later, Silon from Portuguese Skrilanka today, seize strategist locations maritime, Malta in Europe South of Italy, control of south and western Mediterranean, Caribean, (the first Empire had been that they lost with the Am colonies)
Holly Alliance (Russia, Austria Prussia destined to help all those monarchs who were threatened. Argentina becomes independent (1816)
Prussia increased territory and became a predominant power in NW Germany. Confederation of Rhine=German confederation but center of Europe remained weak, loose disorganized.
The congress created a loose German confederation in central Europe unified along lines of legitimacy. France was not punished (no lines of nationality for territorial division)
No war involving more than 2 powers until WWI
After the congress of Vienna the British took measure to avoid a revolution, the spirit of the French Rev did not survive there. (Rule of Law)