13 Colonies


1440 Portuguese Expansion begins


First to establish Slave Trade as an institution to work on sugar cane plantations

1492 Discovery of America


To find a fast route to India (spices, luxuries, paper, tea)
Because the Crusades had failed in reconquering the Holy Land (Israel today)Starting on the 11th to the 13th centuries.
Expeditions to recover Holy Land from Turks (present day Israel so the East was blocked by Turks who captured Istanbul
and Europeans could not travel to east by strait of Bosphorus(silk, paper, spices etc, trade)

1494 Treaty of Tordesillas


Rivalry Spain and Portugal drew a line west of Canary Islands: to the East belonged to Portugal and to the West to Spain

1534 France search por passage to north East Indies


Great success of Spain encouraged other emerging nations to find areas of colonization.
Claimes eastern half of Canada and a slice of land between the Appalachian Mts and Missisip.

1558 - 1603 Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603

1558 - 1603

Under her reign interest in expansion to New World

1565 1st European Settlement in North Am.


Also in Caribbean Central and South Am. 1565 By the Spanish Monarch (Spanish Empire)

1585 1st Colonizing adventure Sri W. Raleigh-Roanoke Is


Colony abandoned to fight the Armada. No one was ever found

1588 England Defeats the Spanish Armada 1588


Henceforth claims North American territories

1603 - 1625 James I (Stuart)

1603 - 1625

1607 Jamestown 1st Settlement Permanent (Virginia)


Slave Colony, tobacco TRADE fostered more colonization.Renamed by Raleigh which comprised all the area where later the 13 colonies settled.
Relied initially on indenture servants: indiv who signed contracts to work for a period of 4-5 years in return for passage to Am.
English merchants sponsored colonization in the New World=London Company was formed (shares were sold to sponsor colonization). James
granted a charte

1619 Virginia Assembly


1st intance of a representative government (they could vote for the assembly and be elected to it. (house of Burgesses: 2 landowning
representatives from each of the small settlements in the colony)
Enacted laws for the colony.There was a Virginia governor

1619 Dutch Ship sells 20 Africans to work in Virgina's tobbaco Plantations


Slavery institutionalizes. South by 1700 (master and slave class).

1620 Mayflower (New Playmouth Massachussets)


COMPACT created Body politik (political body who could pass their own laws, gave themselves a form of government and organization. Founded for
religious purposes (northern ones)

1625-1649 Charles I Salutary Neglect

1625 - 1649

Remini 26

1642-1649 Civil Wars

1642 - 1649

Profoundly Revolutionary for a short time. Parliamentarians against royalists but it did not spread, it was confined to En. It was called the Great Rebellion for contemporaries.

1649-1660 Interregnum up to Charles II Restoration 1649 - 1660

1649 - 1660

Colonies left to themselves self sustained growth. Restoration: no close supervision of colonies

1660 Navigation and Trade Acts 1660


Ver Remini p 24 Mercantilism Triangular Trade

1685-1688 James II 1685 - 1688 hated king overthrown in Glorious rev.

1685 - 1688

hated king overthrown in Glorious rev.

1686 Dominion of New England


James II tries to control northern colonies, engenders resentement, appoints a governor= dictatorial rule. Remini p. 23