Modern World History

Main

World War 1 began

4 August 1914

World War 1 ended

1918

Paris Peace Conference

18 January 1919

Japan&Italy - territorial gains
Br & French - weakened Germany
USA- Woodrow Wilson Secure 14 points
japan not given due respect by Western powers
Germany & Russia not invited

League of Nations set up

28 April 1919

Aims:
prevent wars by:
1. collective security (disarmament talks)
2. Settling international disputes through negotiations and arbitration

Washington Naval Conference

1921

Success:
- negotiated outside league
- organised by USA ( not league member)
- ratio for tonnage of capital ships
Br:USA:Japan:France:italy
5 :5 :3 :1.67: 1.67
- Japanese felt that agreement was unfair and biased against them

LON success: Aaland Island

1921
  • Islands belonged to Finland but were claimed by Sweden
  • Most Islanders wanted to be ruled by Sweden
  • Two countries referred dispute to the league
  • Finland keep Islands but islanders Swedish way of life protected. -Sweden accepted ruling over Aaland
  • war averted

Treaty of Rapallo

1922

Germany to build offensive military force in Russia
both countries benefit from technological advancement

Geneva Protocol ( LON failure)

1924

Purpose: strengthen LON, Countries to accept decision by LON
- Many countries refused to sign Protocol
- did not like idea of being compelled to accept LON decisions
- showed countries could refuse to accept LON decisions

Locarno Treaties

1925

Partial Success
- negotiated outside the league
- guarantee Belgian and french borders with germ
- Weimar govern. accepted demilitarization of Rhineland
-WG agreed to settle disputes through LON
- UK & Italy to defend France if Germany violated agreement on Franco-German border

League Commission to prepare for World Disarmament Conference

1926

Failure
Br. & France refused to cooperate

Germany joined LON

1926

Kellog-Briand Pact

1928

Failure
- Agreement that all conflicts should only be resolved by pacifist means/ condemn wars

- no clear method of enforcement

Stalin Gained control over USSR

November 1929

London Naval Conference

1930

Japan invaded Manchuria

September 1931

LON failure
- to solve Japan's economic problems, invade Manchuria
-Japan invaded China without peaceful resolution for conflict over an exploded railway owned by a Japanese company
- LON Investigated & condemned Japan
- Japanese ignored condemnation and left league
- LON did not have power/will to act against Japan

World Disarmament Conference

1932 - 1934

FAILURE
- Germany insisted on matching other powers armament level
- France refused to limit own armaments
- France nervous, it lost safeguard of American support
- believed they needed security of large army
- Br & USA refused to commit to France requested level
- Hitler withdrew from conference & LON

Germany conscription and rearmament

1933 - 1935

Hitler reassured allies that he was committed to peace
allies with stronger military can keep Germany in check
LON made verbal protests instead of sanctions
Hitler transformed Germany into a formidable and dangerous military power

Chamber of Commerce

1933

Censorship
-limit freedom of expression
-censored everything Germans could read,watch/listen
- enforcement of Nazi's doctrine on GErman ppl & control of public opinion easier

Japan left LON

February 1933

Germany withdrew from LON

14 October 1933

Russia joined LON

1934

Remilitarization of Rhineland

1935
  • violation of Locarno Treaty and Treaty of Versailles
  • ordered poorly equipped troops into Rhineland, withdraw if attacked -as deterrence against Franco-Soviet Alliance
  • LON condemned but did nothing else
  • LON distracted by Abyssinian Crisis
  • Hitler met with no resistance -became bolder

Nuremberg Laws

1935

excluding Jews from German Society

Stresa Front

April 1935

between italy, france and britain to oppose Germany threat

Franco-soviet Alliance

2 May 1935

-btw France and USSR after HItler announced Germany's rearmament in 1935
- provide a check on Germanys aggression
-provide aid to one another
-aid approved by LON
- French govern. refused to accept plans to coordinate with USSR
- effectiveness of alliance undermined

Anglo-German Naval Agreement

18 june 1935

German allowed to have a navy 1/3 the tonnage of Britain's surface fleet and equal tonnage of submarines
-signaled beginning of appeasement

Italy invaded Abyssinia

October 1935

LON failure
1. Mussolini wanted to:
- fight a war
-start a great empire
- to win coal, iron, steel and oil which italy lacked
- revenge a defeat by Abyssinia at Battle of Adowa 1896
2. league imposed economic sanctions to italy but excluded steel, oil and coal
3. Britain and France strike a deal with Italy to maintain positive relations within the Stresa Front ( group to withstand growing Germany threat):
Italy could keep the resource rich areas.
4. undermined LON as peace keeping body
5.encourage Mussolini to look for further military success and influence in the Mediterranean
7. Britain and France by the principles of international law opposed acts of war of Italy, but in order to avoid the loss of their own, they did not want confrontation with Italy, resulting in Italy gradually moving closer to Germany, while Austria and Germany eventually merged.

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939
  • LON did not stop foreign countries eg Italy, USSR, Germany from intervening in the war
  • German Air Force picked out a small town as target practice to test bombing capabilities
  • Hitler wanted to divert British and french attention from his expansionist plans into Eastern Europe -Hitler potrayed himself to be defender of civilization against communism
  • added to western powers to trust hitler
  • made british and french intervention in spain more remote
  • encouraged hitlers perception of british and france as weak
  • made him more aggressive

Anti-Comintern Pact

25 November 1936

Anti communist pact btw japan and germany
- aimed against comintern which promoted communist uprisings in the rest of the world
- against USSR

US congress passed Neutrality Act

May 1937

American ships prohibited from transporting any passengers or materials to warring nations
- american citizens forbidden from travelling on ships of warring nations

Second-Sino Japanese War

8 july 1937

Cause: Marco Polo Bridge incident
- increased military strength in Wanping
- heightened tensions btw Jap & CHinese resulted in a full-scale invasion of China
-western powers preoccupied with Europe

Italy joined Anti-Comintern Pact

November 1937

formation of Axis powers

Anschluss with Austria

1938
  • Many ppl in Ausria supported Union
  • Hitler encouraged Austrian NAzis to push for a political union with GErmany -pressurize Kurt Schuschnigg, Austrian Chancellor into agreeing
  • only an Anschluss will stop the demonstrations and riots
  • Schuchnigg called a plebiscite
  • Hitler sent troops into austria to keep order during voting -Britain and France did nothing
  • Austria's resources of gold and iron ore and weapons and army belonged to Hitler

Munich Agreement

29 September 1938

-under influence of Nazi Party Leader in Sudetenland, these Germans demanded to be a part of Germany
-hitler threatened to go to war for sudetenland
-to maintain policy of appeasement to avoid waging war in europe
britain, france, germany and italy signed Munich Agreement
-whole of Sudetenland would be given to Germany
-czechoslovakia & USSR not invited/consulted
- czech bullied into agreement (face Germany alone or agree)
- sudetenland;
great fortifications
factories&raw materials
3 million jews
ppl demande self rule

Russia expelled from LON

1939

Invasion of Czechoslovakia

16 march 1939

Hitler invaded and took over rest of czech
- neither czechs nor allies fought back
-chamberlain realized hitler could not be trusted
-Britain and France allied with Poland
- warned hitler they would go to war with germany if he invade Poland
-czech lost 70% of fortifications
- rest of czech exposed to German Invasion

Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact

23 August 1939

-avoid two-front war with USSR should Hitler invade Poland
-secret protocol 1/2 poland to Germany 1/2 poland to USSR
-Britain and Poland signed a mutual defence treaty

Invasion of Poland

1 september 1939

-hitler demanded for Danzig (port city &majority Germans)
-Polish leaders distrusted Hitler and feared loss of Polands independence
- negotiations broke down
- Hitler demanded for Danzig and Polish Corridor
- Negotiations with Britain and France failed
- Hitler invaded Poland on 1 September

World war 2 began in Europe

3 september 1939

Tripartite Act

September 1940

Germany, japan and Italy
Japan recognized Germany and Italy dominance and vice versa

Lend-lease act

March 1941

-signaled end of American neutrality
-supply weapons,food and equipment to Britain and any country whose defence was vital to national security of USA

Hitler invaded USSR, opened up Eastern Front

June 1941

Soviet-Allies Alliance

July 1941

American Oil embargo on Japan

July 1941
  • to persuade Japan to withdraw from China
  • forced Japan to turn to SEA for resources and raw materials to support economy and military -war in europe as distraction, SEA unprotected

Japan Attacked Pearl Harbor

7 December 1941

World War 2 began in Asia-Pacific

8 December 1941

Wannsee Conference

20 January 1942

Holocaust during WW2
Final solution to the Jewish problem

Battle of Stalingrad

August 1942 - February 1943

Battle of Stalingrad

Battle of Krusk

july 1943 - august 1943

Germans retreated form Eastern Front

Italy surrenders to allies

September 1943

Italy declares war on Axis Powers

October 1943

Operation overlord

June 1944

D-Day landings

Allies land in Berlin

April 1945

Hitler committed suicide

World war 2 ended in Europe

8 May 1945

Germany surrendered

Atom bomb on Hiroshima

6 August 1945

Second atomic bomb on Nagasaki

9 August 1945

World War 2 ended in Asia Pacific

14 august 1945

Japanese surrender

15 August 1945