Canadian Aboriginals hunted, fished and lived off the land. They lived close to water and forests and used the natural resources to survive. They built teepees and canoes and learned to trade with other tribes and Europeans. They moved around a lot and carried their homes and belongings with them. The believed in spirits, marriage and family.
Europeans and Aboriginals
1550 - 1750
The Mikmaq Aboriginals in Eastern Canada were the first to meet the Europeans. They got along well but many Aboriginals died over the years due to diseases brought by the Europeans. They traded fur for metal tools, wool and goods. The Europeans forced their ways on the Aboriginals and over time changed the Aboriginal culture.
Europeans and Aboriginals
1560 - 1775
More and more Europeans moved into Canada and started using all of the natural resources and forced the Aboriginals to move inland. They forced religion, schooling and language on the Aboriginals. There was inter-marriage which changed the migratory lifestyle of the Aboriginals.
Politics and Law
English Revolution - King Charles I
1625 - 1649
King Charles I was Monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1625 until he was executed in 1649. He was disliked by the people and the reason for the civil wars.
English Civil War Battles
1642 - 1645
There were three main battles during the English Civil War.
1) Edge Hill - 1642 - first major battle. Both sides claimed victory but there is no evidence of who won.
2) Marston Moor - 1644 - Charles I was defeated and lost control of the North of England.
3) Naseby - 1645 - Charles I was defeated and didn't recover from this loss and lost his cause.
1642 - 1651
The English Revolution was a series of wars and fights between governments. The civil war was basically a split between those who supported parliament and those who supported the King, Charles I.
French Revolution - The Marquis de Lafayette
1757 - 1834
The Marquis de Lafayette fought in both wars. He was a general in the American Revolutionary and a leader of the national guard in the French Revolution. Lafayette was the most important link between the two revolutions. He asked all supporters to follow what the Americans did.
American Revolution - The Stamp Act
The Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1765 and was the first direct tax imposed on the British colonies in North America. The tax was imposed on all printed materials by the British to pay for their armies and reduce their debt. The people were furious and fought it.
1765 - 1783
August 15, 1769 - 1821
Napoleon was born in Corsica, Italy on August 15, 1769. He went to Military school and lived a rich life. Napoleon was a dictator and his election marked the end of the French Revolution and the beginning of the Napoleonic period.
American Revolution - Boston Massacre
The Boston Massacre took place on March 5, 1770. British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of people. The soldiers were arrested but pamphlets showing British soldiers shooting innocent people created anti-British feelings in Boston.
American Revolution - The Declaration of Independence
july 4, 1776
On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was adopted. It listed 13 colonies as independent but the war continued as Britain was not willing to give up its North American colonies.
1789 - 1799
The French Revolution changed France. It followed the American Revolution and was very violent. It made ended absolutism, feudalism, class privilege and legal inequality, and spread natural right, equality and freedom throughout the world.
Rise of Nationalism - French Revolution
The French Revolution was the first example of Nationalism in Europe. It changed politics and the constitution of France. The power was transferred from a monarchy to the people who could decide on the destiny of their country.
Rise of Nationalism
1789 - 1900
Nationalism is a common sense of pride and belief in oneself and the country you live in. It is symbolized by national flags, anthems and national symbols. Napoleon destroyed nationalism in Europe and the people fought back after his death.
French Revolution - The fall of the Bastille
On July 14, 1789 an angry mob attacked the Bastille in Paris which held many political prisoners. The soldiers surrendered and the Parisians felt victorious.
Rise of Nationalism -
The French Revolution and the new nationalism in France motivated other European Cities to do the same. It started with students and educated middle class people educating the people. The French army also helped spread nationalism when they moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790's.
Napoleon - Commander French Army
Napoleon was made the Commander of the French Army in Italy in 1796. He forced Austria and its allies to make peace. He fought in many battles, was stranded when his ship was destroyed by the Britains and he conquered most of Europe.
The Code of Napoleon
1802 - 1804
Napoleon was made Consul for life in 1802. He became Emperor in 1804. He centralized government, created the Bank of France, brought back Roman Catholicism into State and law reform called the Code of Napoleon.
Technology and Economy
Settlement of North America
It is said that the Aboriginal of North America crossed a bridge from Asia which is now under water. Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas in 1492 and then John Cabot discovered Canada in 1497. Three European countries sent people to settle in North America - the Spanish, French and British.
Colonialism is when a group of people from one nation move into another weaker nation and take it over. The main home country has the power and the colonists have to make their way in the new land.
The Russians started the fur trade and when European beavers became extinct, the French and the English fought over the beavers in Canada. The fur trade changed the economy and caused war with the Aboriginals in Canada.
The Fur Trade - The Hudson Bay Company
The Hudson Bay Company was established in 1670 by Prince Rupert. The Hudson Bay Company traded beaver fur around the world and is the oldest company in Canada. It merged with the North West Company and set up trading posts across Canada.
The Age of Imperialism began around 1700 when modern and developed countries began taking over less developed countries and colonizing them or influencing them to expand their own power.
The Europeans believed they were superior to the Aboriginals and tried to force imperialism on them. They tried to change the way they lived. They tried to civilize them, educate them and convert them to Christianity.
The Industrial Revolution
1760 - 1840
The Industrial Revolution was the introduction of machine processes and more efficient ways of manufacturing items. It affected every aspect of everyone's lives. It created growth and wealth and economic wealth