Development of Physical Education

Development of Physical Education

German, Swedish, and English influence in physical education reach America

German immigrants integrate Turner Societies


Turner Societies advocated gymnastics training. This included mostly gymnastics that used parallel and horizontal bars and the side horse.

Swedish immigrants promote exercise


Their form of exercise used light equipment such as wands and climbing ropes, to promote general health

English immigrants introduce sports and games


Their system focused on the development of morals through participation in sports and games

The Round Hill School becomes the first school to integrate physical education


Charles Beck, an immigrant, is the first physical education teacher in America.

Cincinnati, Ohio offers physical education in public school curriculum


They are the first public schools to offer physical education in the curriculum

Battle of the Systems

regarded which system of physical education was the best to use in schools. 1855-1900

John Dewey leads education reforms


His reforms bring the "3 R's" that include physical education in curriculum

Normal Schools established


"normal schools" are established to teach physical education teachers

Sports win out as the main focus in the "Battle of the Systems"

Approx. 1920

Charles Mcloy introduces testing of motor skills

Approx. 1927

Mcloy introduces the testing of motor skills to the physical education system

"The New Physical Education" by Wood and Rosalind Cassidy is published


their research advocates "education through the physical"

Steady growth of physical education in schools


Many states pass legislation requiring physical education in schools

Approx. 1920

Dr Hans Kraus links health problems& pains in American youth to lack of exercise

Approx. 1938

This research leads to his report with Weber on the fitness of youth internationally

Curriculum shifts during times of war

Approx. 1941

curriculum shifts from games and sports to physical conditioning

Kraus-Weber report shifts curriculum again


Curriculum shifts again to focus upon physical conditioning when a national report finds that American students are less fit than their English counterparts

President's Council on Physical Fitness established

Approx. 1955

established as a result of the Kraus-Weber report in an effort to turn around the fitness of America's youth

Recent promotion of physical activity

Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans enacted


guidelines developed to help Americans attain better fitness and overall health

Carol M. White Physical Education Program is created


This program provides grants to enhance and create better physical education programs in communities

Presidential Youth Fitness Program is begun


this program replaces the old presidential fitness test.

Michelle Obama kickstarts the Let's Move! campaign to fight childhood obesity


Sponsors of the Let's Move! campaign donate millions to promote PE

February 2013

NIKE, Inc., the GENYOUth Foundation, ChildObesity180, Kaiser Permanente, and the General Mills Foundation all donate millions towards the campaign