History of Vocal Music

Italy

MEDIEVAL ERA

1200 - 1400

RENAISSANCE ERA

1400 - 1600

Frottola

1470 - 1530

Claudio Monteverdi

1567 - 1643

Florentine Camerata

Approx. 1580

•Favored (what they perceived/thought to be) “Greek” declamation style==MONODIA
-Clarity
-Chorus/Soloist

•RULES
1.Text must be clearly understood.
a.Words must be sung with natural and correct declamation (long/short vowels)
b.No contrapuntal writing

2.Avoid dance-like meter and textual repitions

3.Melody should not reflect pictoral images, but rather the affect of piece.
a.Depict what is BEHIND text

4.No depiction of violence on stage
a.Aristotle

Peri: Dafne

1598

First Opera

Text by Rinuccio

Performed at Carnival

BAROQUE ERA

1600 - 1760

Secondo Prattica/Stile Moderno

Approx. 1602

Caccini: Le nuove musiche

1602

MONODIA

Alessandro Scarlatti

1660 - 1725

o Born in Palermo, sent to Rome
o Elected to Arcadian Academy in 1706
o Composed 66 operas

Arcadian Movement

1690

•LITERARY movement
•1690=Stars in Rome
-Swedish Queen Christina is a huge patron of the arts
• Idealization of shepards, gods, goddess’, etc

***GOALS
o Reform diction in Italian poetry
• Correct placement of long and short vowels
o Return to the Artistitilian unities
o Less contrived
• Less machinery and token “scenes” in opera specifically
o Inspired by bucolic Greek/Roman ideals and poetry
o Sought “truth”
o Should maintain measure/balance
o Pastoral names

• Zeno
o Greek scholar/libertist that played large role in reform
o Venetian nobleman
o Wrote libretti for 36 operas
• Tended to write about characters who wished to serve/be heros
• Influenced by court
o Started Arcadian Academy in Venice
o Shows goodness/virtue
• Cardinal Ottoboni (1667-1740)
o Great uncle was Pope Alexander VIII
• Made him cardinal

• Code names
• Thought:
o Libretti should have ethical/moral content
o Also a happy ending
• Lieto fine
o Many set in Rome/Greece
o Some exotic settings
• China, Persia, etc
• Marinists: more raunchy and less favorable.
o More realism
o “Smutty”

Pietro Metastasio

1698 - 1782

o Important librettist of opera seria
o Child prodigy in recitation of poetry
o Adopted by Giovanni Vincento
- Famous Arcadian and jurist
o Gravina Hellenized gave PM his Arcadian last name
o At age 12, translated the Illiad into octave stanzas

Opera Buffa

Approx. 1725

ITALIAN COMEDY

o Aria types
• Buffa aria
• Usually sung by a bass/baritone
• Humorous
• Emphasizes the genre’s preference for stage gesture and action over vocal skill
o Opportunity for comedy
• Often sung by man of bourgeois or noble-ish origins exercising power or uncertain authority

• Serva/contradina aria
• Females of the pesant or serving classes
• Defining attributes:
o Association with pesants or serving class women
o Focuses on men (pro & con)
o Insouciant attitude along with acute awareness
o Often defends women
o Mention diminuatives
• How clever/cunning they are

Opera Buffa

Approx. 1725

ITALIAN COMEDY

o Aria types
• Buffa aria
• Usually sung by a bass/baritone
• Humorous
• Emphasizes the genre’s preference for stage gesture and action over vocal skill
o Opportunity for comedy
• Often sung by man of bourgeois or noble-ish origins exercising power or uncertain authority

• Serva/contradina aria
• Females of the pesant or serving classes
• Defining attributes:
o Association with pesants or serving class women
o Focuses on men (pro & con)
o Insouciant attitude along with acute awareness
o Often defends women
o Mention diminuatives
• How clever/cunning they are

CLASSICAL ERA

1730 - 1820

Gioachino Rossini

1792 - 1868

***Characteristics of Rossini’s style

o Motivic repition
o Agility
o Jubilant
o Often syllabic or very melissmatic
o Hyper cadential
o Conversational with Orchestra
o Harmonically predictable
o Endings almost always PAC
o Orchestra/chorus=doubled
o Singer based
• Controlled by virtuosic soloist
• Solita Forma

ROMANTIC ERA

1815 - 1910

20TH CENTURY

1900

Opera

RENAISSANCE ERA

1400

Peri: Dafne

1598

First Opera

Text by Rinuccio

Performed at Carnival

BAROQUE ERA

1600

***BAROQUE OPERA SERIA:
o Followed unity of time and place
o Subject matter: ancient history and myths
o Resolutions should occur though natural means, not super natural intervention
o Little or no comedy
o Simplicity, naturalness, dignity
o Instruct as well as entertain
o Libretto should be of high literary quality
o Action should move forward in broken verse: Freely alternating unrhymed 7 & 11 syllable lines

***RECIT
o Reflection, reaction, or summation: strophic verse realized in aria

o Only about 6-8 characters
o Arias @ the end of a scene after which the singer leaves the stage
• Occasional cavatina
• Ensembles rather rare: Maybe 1 per opera
• Usually solos/duet
• Leito fine (happy ending & moral teaching)

***COMPANY
• Most arias: prima donna
• Seconda donna
• Terza donna
• Around 20-30 airas per opera

Rameau

1683 - 1764

o French contemporary of Bach and Handel
o 1722: comes to Paris
o 1733: first opera, Hippolyte ed Aricie
o After Lully, most significant opera composer in France

• Pamphlet war Lully vs. Rameau
• Rameau=more complex than Lully

o Met and collaborated with Voltaire

o 1752-54: War of the Buffoons

***MUSIC
• Retained 5 act format
• More leaps in recit
• More harmonically difficult
• Appogotura
• Inventor of “functional harmony”
• Colorful orchestra
o Criticized because of difficulty, convoluted lines, difficulty

Arcadian Movement--OPERA SERIA

1690

Pietro Metastasio

1698 - 1782

o Important librettist of opera seria
o Child prodigy in recitation of poetry
o Adopted by Giovanni Vincento
• Famous Arcadian and jurist
o Gravina Hellenized gave PM his Arcadian last name
o At age 12, translated the Illiad into octave stanzas

Handel: Rinaldo

1711

RINALDO=part

Written for London stage

C.W. Gluck

1714 - 1787

•1741-1742: first opera composed in Venice for carnival season
•Metastasian libretto
•Worked in London, Dresden, Vienna, Hamburg
•Cosmopolitan
• 1755: Hired as director and composer at Burgtheatre in Vienna
• Dance troupe and French actors in residence
• Repitoire:
o modern works of spoken drama
o Parisian opera comique adapted for Viennese taste and morals
o Angiolini ballets b/w acts of Operas
o SOMETIMES Italian operas
• For birthdays, occasions, etc
• 1762: Orfero ed Euridice
• Calzabigi, Angiolini, & Gluck collaborated to produce first Viennese reform opera
• Retains some Metastasian features
• Hardly any simile arias, exits arias, da capo
• Large scale tableaux, ballets
o Shortish arias
• Meant to be appreciated onstage rather than poetically/literarily
• 1765:
• Sudden death of Arcduke
o Theatres closed
o Musicians out of work
o Wrote Alcestis in hope of bringing wife of Arcduke back to theatre

Calzabigi

1714 - 1795

• Italian writer and librettist
• Had strong ideas of what/how opera should be
• Challenged Metastasian form of opera seria
• Both in libretto and polemical prose writings
• Wanted to combine best features of French and Italian serious opera
• Poison conspiracy & banished from Tuscany
• Joins Arcadian Academy and moves to Naples
• Writes poetry, which Metastasio appreciates but ultimately deems it too natural and that it lacked artifice
• Moves to Paris and befriends Cassanova

CLASSICAL ERA

1730

Handel: Xerse

1738

Serse=role

Written for London stage

Charles de Brosses

1739

•Charles de Brosses (1709-1777)

o Journey to Italy in 1739
• Describes opera and the comic intermezzo
• Clear difference between recit and aria

***ARIA TYPES
• Showy
• Arias with agreeable melodies
- Zephyrs, flowers, pastoral themes
• Passionate arias
- Simply expressed
- Less melodius

War of the Buffoons

1750

FRENCH VS. ITALY STYLE WAR

• Italian buffa style: 1720s-1730s

• 1752: troupe of Italian intermezzo singers perform @ Paris opera between acts of Lully’s Acis y Galete
o La Serva Padrona

***PRO:
o Below queen’s box
o Rosseau, FM Grimm, & other “enlightened philosophers”
o Rosseau: “You can’t set French language to music”
o Anti establishment
o Favored graceful charm

***AGAINST
o King’s corner
o Favored dramatic power of tragedie en musique
o Apples & oranges
• OPERA: LITERARY OR MUSICAL GENRE?
• Human expression vs. controlled artifice

W.A Mozart

1756 - 1791

Gluck: Orfeo ed Eurdice

1762

MOZART: 'Le Nozze di Figaro'

1786

Gioachino Rossini

1792 - 1869

Gaetano Donizetti

1797 - 1848

Richard Wagner

1813 - 1883

Giuseppe Verdi

1813 - 1901

-Towering giant of Italian opera in 19th century
•Rose to fame after Rossini retired in 1829
oStyle evolves over time
o Wrote Nabucco after a family member died
o Continued to compose at an old age

***STYLE
• Great melodic invention
• Straight forward harmonies
• Voice dominated texture
• Follows and develops four movement conventional form
• Solita forma
o Tempo d’altaco opening

***LATER
• Action is more continuous
• Harmonies more daring
• Orchestra plays bigger role and treated with great originality
• Follows Solita forma to fit dramatic situation

***Libretti
• Mostly based on pre-existing stories
• Hugo, Shakespeare, etc
• Sought strong situations
• Fast action,
• Striking contrasts
• Unusual characters
• Highly emotional situations
• Human experience the audience can relate to

ROMANTIC ERA

1815

Bel Canto Opera

1820

Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots

1836

GRAND OPERA

Donizetti: La Favorite

1840

Meyerbeer: Le prophète

1849

Verdi: Il trovatore

1853

Contalto role: Azcuena

Verdi: La Traviata

1853

Wagner: Das Rheingold

1869

ERDA=role

Bizet: Carmen

1875

Puccini: La bohème

1896

20TH CENTURY

1900 - 2000

Benjamin Britten

1913 - 1976

Britten: Peter Grimes

1945

Britten: Rape of Lucretia

1946

Written for Kathleen Ferrier

Barber: Vanessa

1957

France

MEDIEVAL ERA

1200

Guillaume de Machaut

1300 - 1377

-ballades
-virelai

Gilles Binchois

1400 - 1460

-courtly chansons

RENAISSANCE ERA

1400 - 1600

BAROQUE ERA

1600 - 1760

Jean-Baptiste Lully

1632 - 1687
  • Italian Born

***STYLE
• Use of the Italian recit style
• Use of the French air de four
- “air” refers to a brief passage that is tonally unified and involves text repition
• Usually in binary, ternary, or rounded binary form
• Use of French theatrical declamation
• Frequent switching between bars of duple and triple meter
• Follows text declamation
• Ensembles are generally thru composed and are a few phrases in length
• Mostly duets
• Instrumental passage occur mainly in two textures
• Trio for 2 treble parts
• 5 part homophony

o Felt that beautiful French text was paramount, and that the music was less important

o Works feature constant singing
o Recit-aria transition very quick
• At times difficult to distinguish difference
o Dance rhyhtms
o Less repitition
• More deliberate repitition
o Use of a “diversion” once an act
• Usually a dance performance
• Used body doubles for principles
o Prolouge
• Allegorical figures
• Refernce to Louis XIV and virtues
• Blurb about the hero prevailing
o Diverstissments
• Dance pieces
• Bourees, chacones, gavottes, gigues, loures, minutes, passacaglia
• Minuet/gavotte=most popular
• Dancers wear masked onstage
• Enchanted Island
• Bold gestures

Phillipe Quinalt

1635 - 1688

-Partnership with Lully
-1668: Composed text for divertissement ‘La grotte de Versailles”
-Thereafter, joins select group of poets to pay homage to King Louis
-Louis’ mistress gets offended at an unflattering portrayl and Quinalt gets fired
oSubject matter:
-Classical mythology and legends of Chivalry

Louis XIV

1638 - 1715

oVersailles Palace
-Was once a hunting lodge
oLoved ballet
-The art form was basically cultivated in his court
-Royalty also expected to be educated in bowing, fencing, and social dancing (ballet)

oFrench culture=proud/nationalistic
oPublic felt that Louis XIV was influenced by the Italian cardinal Mazarin(i)
•Attempts importing Italian opera to France
•The French disliked Castrati
•Thought to be horrible and unnatural/inhumane

o Composer Lully and his librettist Quinalt have monopoly at French court
-The pair write 16 operas and 2 ballets
-Critics/other librettists jealous
-Use of symmetry

Marc-Antoine Charpentier

1643 - 1704

Aristoltilian Unities

Approx. 1660

• Literary/drama rules conceived by Aristotle in his “Poetics”

  1. The unity of action: a play should have one main action that it follows, with no or few subplots.

  2. The unity of place: a play should cover a single physical space and should not attempt to compress geography, nor should the stage represent more than one place.

  3. The unity of time: the action in a play should take place over no more than 24 hours.

• Horace: a play should delight and instruct
• Air of decorum
o No violence onstage
o Chevalier folklore
• Proud, heroic

Jean Racine

1670

Rameau

1683 - 1764

o French contemporary of Bach and Handel
o 1722: comes to Paris
o 1733: first opera, Hippolyte ed Aricie
o After Lully, most significant opera composer in France

• Pamphlet war Lully vs. Rameau
• Rameau=more complex than Lully

o Met and collaborated with Voltaire

o 1752-54: War of the Buffoons

***MUSIC
• Retained 5 act format
• More leaps in recit
• More harmonically difficult
• Appogotura
• Inventor of “functional harmony”
• Colorful orchestra
o Criticized because of difficulty, convoluted lines, difficulty

CLASSICAL ERA

1730 - 1820

Charles de Brosses

1739

•Charles de Brosses (1709-1777)

o Journey to Italy in 1739
• Describes opera and the comic intermezzo
• Clear difference between recit and aria

ARIA TYPES
• Showy
• Arias with agreeable melodies
- Zephyrs, flowers, pastoral themes
• Passionate arias
- Simply expressed
- Less melodius

Hector Berlioz

1803 - 1869

• Leader of the Romantic Movement in French music and brought it out of its decline
• Aesthetic & French Music
o “Music should realize the meaning of the words”

***STYLE
o Use of 7th chords
o Prose style
• Assymetrical
o Clarity, economy, delicacy, wit, exuberance, refinement, deep feeling
o Relationship to literature is more analogous than illustrative
o Length, orchestral
o Continuous, dramatic,

o Used poetry of Gautier
• Precursor to the Parnassians

ROMANTIC ERA

1815 - 1910

Precursors to French Mélodie

1820

• Contributing Factors: Musical scene in the late 1700s: the ‘Romance’ reaches maturity and begins to decline

o Substitute vocal genre needed
o Introduction of Schubert’s Lieder into France
o Impact of new Romantic poetry

The New Mélodie

1836

o Structure: Strophic form/no longer obligatory
o Vocal part: square phrase not always used, sometimes vocal line treated like recitative
o Accompaniment: The piano assumes a more important role. Orchestral effects sometimes used. Communicative.
• Romanticism emphasizes piano accompaniment to express what is unsaid in the poem

o Text: Interest in verse of high literary value. Hugo, Lamartine, and Gautier

• Free structures, run-on lines, broken meters, abandonment of the square phrase

Gabriel Faure

1845 - 1924

• Thee collections of songs:
o 1st recueil: (1861-1879)
o 2nd recueil: (1878-1887)
o 3rd recueil: (1888-1904)

***Four Periods

***First Period (1860-1870) - Romance, Italian style,
• Characteristics:
• Use of simpler key signatures
• Form: mostly strophic, some ABA, AAB, modified strophic, one through composed
• Simple accompaniment, use of arpeggios, block chords, triplet rhythm, 6/8 meter
• Romantic Poets: Baudelaire, Beginning to use Parnassians
• Beginning of maintaining rhythmic figure throughout
• Beginning of his interest in texts about the sea
• Italian Influence (Serenade Toscanne, Apres un reve, Barcarolle, Chanson du pecheur)
• Begins to use tri tone
• Some transitory Modulations

***2nd Period (1878-1889) – Parnassian
• Very few strophic songs
• Ternary form with modified reprise ABA, AABA
• Increasing use of modulations
• Increased importance of piano

Henri Duparc

1848 - 1933

• Composed 16 songs
• studied piano with César Franck at the Jesuit College in the Vaugirard district and became one of his first composition pupils.
• military service in the Franco-Prussian Wa
• texts by poets such as Baudelaire, Gautier, Leconte de Lisle and Goethe.
o Used Parnassian

***Style
o Broad but simple melodic lines
o Rich harmonic structure
o Complex piano accompaniment
• Sometimes dense orchestral structures

Ernest Chausson

1855 - 1899

• Student of Massenet and Franck
• Melody very important
• Classical sense of balance and simplicity

Claude Debussy

1862 - 1918

Parnassians

1870

• Emotionally detached
• Assymetrical
• Théophile Gautier and his doctrine of "art for art's sake
• exotic and classical subjects which they treated with rigidity of form and emotional detachment

Paul Verlaine

Sully Prudhomme

Charles Leconte de Lisle,

Théodore de Banville

Stéphane Mallarmé

François Coppée

and José María de Heredia.

SC: Debussy: Ariettes oubliées

1887

***Text
Paul Verlaine

Ariettes oubliées:
--C'est l'Extase langouresuse
--Il Pleure Dans Mon Cour
--L'Ombre des arbres
--Chevaux de bois (Paysages belges)
--Green (Aquarelle)
--Spleen (Aquarelle)

SCollection: Debussy:

1889

***Cinq poèmes de Charles Baudelaire
Le balcon
Harmonie du soir
Le jet d'eau
Recueillement
La mort des amants

SC: Debussy: Fetes galantes I

1892

***Text
Théodore de Banville

Francis Poulenc

1899 - 1969

• Surrealist/cubist
• Virtuoso with pedals
o Driiip
• Creates total atmosphere
• Collections
• Apollinare: Surrealist

20TH CENTURY

1900 - 2000

Jean Berger

1909 - 2002

works for choirs

SC: Poulenc: Banalités:

1940

***Text by Appollinare

Banalités:
II. Hôtel
IV. Voyage À Paris
V. Sanglots

SC: Poulenc: Fiançailles pour rire

1942

Fiançailles pour rire
III. Il vole
V. Violon

***Text
Louise de Vilmorin

SC: Poulenc: La Courte Paille

1960

La Courte Paille:
--La Reine de coeur
--Ba, Be, Bi, Bo, Bu
--Les Anges musiciens

***Text
Maurice Carême

Germany

MEDIEVAL ERA

1200 - 1400

Oswald von Wolkenstein

1377 - 1445

***PRECURSOR TO GERMAN LIEDER
•Composer, poet and diplomat.
•2 or 3 part songs
omore singular
•traveled through much of Europe

•“Der Mai mit lieber Zal”
•Animal sounds
•Imitative
•Patter-esuqe
w/ lyric passages

RENAISSANCE ERA

1400 - 1600

Heinrich Isaac

Approx. 1500

-Netherlandish

Ludwig Senfl

Approx. 1520

•Student of Issac
•260 songs
•imitation
•soprano cantus firmus

Heinrich Schütz

1585 - 1672

BAROQUE ERA

1600 - 1760

Georg Friedrich Händel

1685 - 1759

Italian Trained/cosmopolitan

Johann Sebastian Bach

1685 - 1750

Johann Adolph Hasse

1699 - 1783

composed operas also

Bach: St. Matthew Passion

1727

CLASSICAL ERA

1730 - 1820

***Germany in 1800s

o Divided into as many as 100 different lands
o Low German self-esteem
• King Fred of Prussia: “German is a pig language”
• French & Italian preference in music/drama at court

Franz Joesph Haydn

1732 - 1809

AUSTRIAN

-Wrote Italian operas, singspiel/liturgical music
-Short strophic lieder
-‘In praise of laziness’
-English Songs
-Sailor song

1st Berlin School

1740

•Volkstümliche Musik
-variations on the traditional music of German-speaking countries
-german text/poetry (not complex)
-strophes
-simple accompaniment
-diatonic, simple

***Carl Heinrich Graun (1704 –1759)
•Composer and tenor singer
•Served under Frederich the Great, King of Prussia

***CPE Bach (1714 –1788)
•Berlin
•Assosciated with Enlightenment

***Agricola (1720-1774)
•Italian style

German Nationalism

1744

***Johan Gottfried von Herder
• Writes “Deutscher Kultur und Kunst”
o Writes about 16th & 17th century England produces Shakespeare.
• Thinks SP was a product of circumstances, politics, upbringing
• Sites Greek dramatists also
• Makes point that Goethe was Germany’s saving grace or wunderkind
• Influenced Grimm brothers
• They collect folk tales and publish famous book
• They also notice similarities between German and English
• Grimm brothers also wrote a German law book==VOLK

o Grimm Brothers notice similarities between German and English
o Sense of growing German pride
• In past, imported culture (music, dance, drama) from Italy or occasionally France.
• Send promising music students to study in Italy, etc
• Strassberg Cathedral
• Goethe wrote essay about the unified construction of this building and relating it to the unification of Germany
• August Philipp Spitta
• German music critic
• Wrote Bach biography
• Said Der Freischutz set the pulse of German people beating

Johann Friedrich Reichardt

1752 - 1814

• composer, writer and music critic.
• Der Erlkonig

W.A. Mozart

1756 - 1791

•Scenes/dramatic writing
-“An Chole”
-Semi-virtuosic piano writing
-More present, showy, thru-played
-Lyricism
-Balanced phrases
-Use of ornaments
-Dynamics

Carl Friedrich Zelter

1758 - 1832

• composer, conductor and teacher of music
o directed Berlin singacademie
o promoted education in Germany
• Believed in importance of text
• Influenced and corresponded with Goethe
o Goethe also composer & sought Zelter’s advice
o Goethe approved of Zelter’s settings of his works

Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg

1760 - 1802

SWABIAN
•Ballad writer
•Influenced Schubert and championed works by Mozart
•“Entfuhrung”
-Ballad with text by Brurger
-25 minutes in length
-More filled out/characterized piano accompaniment
-Importance of text
-Clarity
-Intention
-Strophic
-Lots of dramatic vocal writing
-Operatic at times

2nd Berlin School

1770

•Better poetry
•Varying strophes
•More conviction in accompaniment
•More thru composed

***Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752 – 1814)
•composer, writer and music critic.
•Der Erlkonig

***Carl Friedrich Zelter (1758 –1832)
•composer, conductor and teacher of music
-promoted education in Germany
•Believed in importance of text
•Influenced and corresponded with Goethe
oGoethe also composer & sought Zelter’s advice
oGoethe approved of Zelter’s settings of his works
•simple

Mozart: "Das Veilchen"

1785

Mozart: "Abendempfindung"

1787

Franz Schubert

1797 - 1828

Robert Schumann

1810 - 1856

***STYLE

-Piano is full participant with the voice
•Transfers expressive qualities to piano
•Melodic material on equal level as voice
•Accompaniment significant
-Considerable elegance of phrasing
-Rubato
•Must stay in frame of rhythmic pulse
-Extensive use of preludes, interludes, postludes

•Studied law with Thibault who thought music and great literature has common thread and would be studied much in the same manner

•Injury to hand ended virtuosic piano career

•Clara Wieck: Wife to Schumann and daughter of piano teacher
oAll this drama

•1834: Neue Leipziger Zeitschrift
-strong literary background
-independent musical criticism journal

•Championing “better quality” music of Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Berlioz and Mendelsohn
• Superior taste informed via intellect (rather than technical prowess)
• First mentioned of “Classical music”
• Notion that music reflected ideas in the spiritual realm
o Later sold to Franz Brendl

•1840: Started writing Lieder (A LOT OF IT!)
-thought the voice was inferior instrument
•wrote mainly piano music up until 1840
•some works signed with different personas
-Florestan: outgoing
-Eusebius: dreamy
-Raro: clara + robert

•3 song cycles
-miniturist

Richard Wagner

1813 - 1886

o Believes everything started with the Greeks and has since been fragmented and thus diluted
• Desired to reunite all the arts again
• Thought that Italians and Jews pull apart or sully the arts : Believe that the Italians fragmentation of recit/aria wasn’t art
- Melody for the sake of melody

o Thought: Melodies that come to rest=fragmentation
o Felt the orchestra gets chided
• Wanted to continue the “good start” by Weber’s Der Freischutz

***1850s: Jewishness in Music
• Anxiety of fragmentation
• Jews weren’t “good musicians”
• No culture of their own
• Can’t create anything of artistic worth because they’re not from anywhere
• Jewish characters in the Wagner’s operas
• Often concerned with money
• Die Meistersinger

o Hans Sachs=Hero
o One of Hans Sachs’ competitors in the singing contest is from ‘nowhere’
• Copies others music/tunes
• “Hebrew chat” dung by Beckmeser

***Bayreuth
• Opera house designed by Richard Wagner
• Didn’t use horse shoe model of the past
• Used fan shaped
• Buried orchestra
• House lights off
• No center aisle
• Insisted on silence during the performance
o Nurenburg
• Well preserved medieval town
• “Quintessential German Town”
o How to make a “German Opera”
• German language
• German setting
• Ring Cycle=set in primordial Germany/Nordic lands
• Use of Starbreim
o German rhyme scheme
o Alliteration
• Consonant repittion
o Assonance
• Vowel repitition
o Beowulf
• Anglo Saxon
• Starbreim
• Use of brass instruments
• Hunting influence
• Use of big orchestra
• Tradition of symphonic music in the German lands
• Mannheim and Mozart
o How to create a “Unified Art Work”
• Combine poetry/music/drama/visual elements equally
• Make voice/orchestra equal
• “Unendlich Melodie” (unending melody)
• Constantly developing melodic material
• “Poetic-musical period”
• No clear demarcation of scenes beginning or ending
• Harmony
• Very enmeshed
o Tristan Chord
• Leitmotifs
• Unify house/audience with the stage

Schubert: Gretchen am Sprinrade

1814

***TEXT
Goethe

Schubert: Der Erlkönig

1815

-Ballad
-Usually 2 or more personae
-Features characters speaking lines
-Narrator
-Sometimes each part was sung by different singers

oText
•Schubert took text from theatrical work “Die Fischerin”, a Singspiel by Goethe

oSpiritual world is as real (or more real) as physical world
-Each character has different sets of melodic motives

•Narrator:
-Not tuneful, declamatory (like measured recit)

•Child:
-Highter pitches, crying

•Father:
-Lower pitches, declamatory

•Erlkonig:
-Only voice in cantabile style
•Sings because of superior status and power
•Sweet , ornamented

oSchubert smoothes irregular scansion by using long note values over a moving accompaniment

•Ignores strophic nature and disguises meter but brings out dramatic qualities

ROMANTIC ERA

1815 - 1910

SC-Beethoven: An die Ferne Geliebte

1816

***TEXT
Jeitteles

***An die Ferne Geliebte
1. Auf dem Hügel sitz ich spähend
2. Wo die Berge so blau
3. Leichte Segler in den Höhen
4. Diese Wolken in den Höhen
5. Es kehret der Maien, es blühet die Au
6. Nimm sie hin an, diese Lieder

Weber: Der Freischütz

1821

• Based on German legend/mythology: Making a deal with the devil for magic bullets in the woods
• Nationalism
o When written it was deemed ‘Romantic German Opera’
o Presence of brass makes it super German
o Hunters chorus
• Mannerchor/frauenchor
• Cultural tradition
o Wolf’s Glen scene
• Pervasive use of dim7 chord
• Phantasma gori=Scary slideshow

SC-Schubert: Die schöne Müllerin

1824

***Text
- Muller

o “The beautiful mill girl”
o Stock plot by Wilhelm Muller
•Gedichte aus dem Hinterlassen Papiern eines Waldhornstein
•“Poems from the posthumous paper writings of a horn player”

• Schubert omitted epilogue, prologue, and 3 other poems to tighten action

• Young man follows brook, comes upon a mill where he is apprenticed, falls in love with the miller’s daughter who jilts him for a hunter. The young man then DROWNS himself in sorrow.

• Text does not narrate drowning but expresses yearning for “the cool place down there”
o Uses musical devices to enhance coherence
• Restless 16th notes figuration in many compositions that implies incessant motion of the brook
o Loose tonal organization provides coherence and a sense of progression
o Nature, represented by the brook is a confidant and comforter
• Romantic notion
o Maintains ‘Volkston’ throughout
• Simple tunes
• Hurdy-gurdy accompaniment

SC: Schubert Winterreisse

1828

***Text
- Muller

Winterreise
1. Gute Nacht
2. Die Wetterfahne
3. Gefrorne Tränen
4. Erstarrung
5. Der Lindenbaum
6. Wasserflut
7. Auf dem Flusse
8. Rückblick
9. Irrlicht
10. Rast
11. Frühlingstraum
12. Einsamkeit
13. Die Post
14. Der greise Kopf
15. Die Krähe
16. Letzte Hoffnung
17. Im Dorfe
18. Der stürmische Morgen
19. Täuschung
20. Der Wegweiser
21. Das Wirtshaus
22. Mut!
23. Die Nebensonnen
24. Der Leiermann

Johannes Brahms

1833 - 1897

***Janus
oAppreciated Folk & classical form
•Folk poetry/text
oExpanded harmonic palate
•Deviation from diatonic harmony
oProfound and accessible
•Elevates piano: equal yet independent
•Not as prose-full as Schubert

***Characteristics
o Liked 2 against 3
o Very long phrases
• lyricism
o Range-y
o Meter changes
o MUSIC outweighs text
o Hemiolas
o Roll of piano
• Complex piano parts
o Everything emerges from bass line
o Expressive broad lines
o Counterpoint in accompaniment
o Pedal points
o Syncopations and poly rythms
o Use of bare octaves
o Symmetry in form

• Text
o Neglects Goethe texts
• Prefers ‘not so great’ poets: Daumer, Goth
o Repeats lines and words
o VERY declamatory
o Love of strophes
o Stayed away from excessive word painting
• Mood vs. specific details
• Musical metaphors
o Stress in poem=stress in music

Schumann: Neue Leipziger Zeitschrift Music Journal

1834

SC: Schumann: Frauenliebe und Leben

1840

***TEXT
Adelbert von Chamisso

Frauenliebe und Leben
• “Seit ich ihn gesehen” (“Since I Saw Him”)
• “Er, der Herrlichste von allen” (“He, the Noblest of All”)
• “Ich kann’s nicht fassen, nicht glauben” (“I Cannot Grasp or Believe It”)
• “Du Ring an meinem Finger” (“You Ring Upon My Finger”)
• “Helft mir, ihr Schwestern” (“Help Me, Sisters”)
• “Süßer Freund, du ander t mich verwundert an” (“Sweet Friend, You Gaze”)
• “An meinem Herzen, an meiner Brust” (“At My Heart, At My Breast”)
• “Nun hast du mir den ersten Schmerz getan” (“Now You Have Caused Me Pain for the First Time”)

SCollectiion: Schumann: Mythren

1840

***Text
-Heine, Rückert, Mosen

***Mythren
• Du Bist wie eine blume
• Die Lotosblume
• Widmung
• Der Nussbaum

SC: Schumann: Liederkreis

1840

***TEXT
Eichendorff "Intermezzo"

Liederkreis
• In der Fremde
• Intermezzo
• Waldesgespräch
• Die Stille
• Mondnacht
• Schöne Fremde
• Auf einer Burg
• In der Fremde
• Wehmut
• Zwielicht
• Im Walde
• Frühlingsnacht

SC: Schumann: Dichterliebe

1840

***TEXT
Heine

Dichterliebe
• Im wunderschönen Monat Mai
• Aus meinen Tränen sprießen
• Die Rose, die Lilie
• Wenn ich in deine Augen she’
• Ich will meine Seele tauchen
• Im Rhein, im heiligen Strome
• Ich grolle nicht
• Und wüssten’s die Blumen
• Das ist ein Flöten und Geigen
• Hör’ ich das Liedchen klingen
• Ein Jüngling liebt ein Mädchen
• Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen
• Ich hab’ im Traum geweinet
• Allnächtlich im Traume
• Aus alten Märchen winkt es
• Die alten, bösen Lieder

Hugo Wolf

1860 - 1903

• Declamatory
• Influenced by Wagner & Liszt
• Uses tonal language and leitmotifs—wagner

***TEXT
o Not sloppy
o Clearly understood
o Expressive facilities
o Prosody=like Schubert
o Consistency with poets
o Used lyric poetry of 19th century

***CHARACTERISTICS
o Humor, wit
o Orchestral textures
o 2 bar phrases
o extensive range
o complex, chromatic texture

Gustav Mahler

1860 - 1911

• Orchestral conception
• Loved ‘folk’

o Larger performing forces onstage
o Specifity of instrumentation
o Brentano/achim von arnim

***CHARACTERISTICS
o Folk song inspiration
o Demanding vocal lines that require great breathe control
o Lines operatic in character

Richard Strauss

1864 - 1949

• Virtuoso
• Stretches tonality
- Use of dissonance
• Follows romanticism and takes it to the max
- Pushes limits
- Experimentation
- Physcological
- Programmatic but traditional
- Symphonic form
- Large intervallic leaps

• 1907-1917 stop writing lieder all together

• Prosody
- Repeats words
- Insistence on good diction

20TH CENTURY

1900 - 2000

England

MEDIEVAL ERA

1200 - 1400

RENAISSANCE ERA

1400 - 1600

BAROQUE ERA

1600 - 1760

Puritan Revolution

1649 - 1660

o Samuel Pepys secret code diary about life in 17th century England
• Cromwell
• Commonwealth
• The Banning of fun things
• Instead, “entertainments” were staged for public
o Lecture-like, tedious lessons played out through drama
• Sermon like: “The Cruelty of the Spainards in Peru”

Henry Purcell

1659 - 1695

***STYLE
• Italian influence
• Virtuosic solo writing
• Sometimes elaborate ornaments transcribed
• Chorus’ later influenced Handel
• French overture style
-Strong downbeat
•3rds & 6ths sonorities
•Repeating basslines

•Wrote odes (birthday songs) for royal family/operas
o Welcome songs
o 65ish anthems and other sacred music
o instrumental music
oMusic for over 50 dramatic works

• Dido & Aeneus (1689)
• The Prophetess (1690)
• King Arthur (1691)
• English anthem styles
• Jaunty
• Choral traditions

CLASSICAL ERA

1730 - 1820

ROMANTIC ERA

1815 - 1910

Rebecca Clarke

1886 - 1979

20TH CENTURY

1900 - 2000

Samuel Barber

1910 - 1981

Benjamin Britten

1913 - 1976

Barber: Knoxville Summer 1915

1946

Spain/Mexico

Juan Hidalgo

1614 - 1685

Juan de Navas

1650 - 1719

Mexico: Manuel de Zumaya

1678 - 1755

Joaquín Valverde Durán

1846 - 1910

zarzuela

Enrique Granados

1867 - 1916

Manuel de Falla

1876 - 1946