India and China past to present

for world civ at the college preparatory school, gumbert


little ice age

1645 - 1750

Carl Marx writes Communist Manifesto


present day



Yuan Dynasty

1271 - 1368

Khubai Khans semi-sinocization

Change in Mandate of Heaven


internal chaos due to discrimination, over taxation, and the black plague
poor agricultural management leads to flooding of the yellow river and a change in the Mandate of Heaven

Zhu Yuanzhang

1368 - 1398

orphan -> monk -> rebel -> emperor

rebuilt the great wall
land reform
authoritarian rule

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

founded by Hongwu, pro-peasants but harsh authoritarian rule


1400 - 1428

guerrilla war
loss of life

Yongle Emperor

1402 - 1424

Zhu Di
the "second founding" of the Mind
battled Junwen for the throne



Japan becomes a temporary vassal of china
"your subject, the king of Japan"

Neo Confucianism


need for civil servant brings back the civil service exams
confucian values lead to disrupted trade
and are at odds with despotism



no clear relations, still a modern topic of debate

Environmental problems

1556 - 1644

earthquake 1556
little ice age
population decline by 10 of millions
shrinking tax base

Matteo Ricci


A catholic Jesuit
accepted by Ming as a foreign literati
strong in math and science
wrote journals about Ming from western perspective

Economic struggles

1600 - 1644

expansionist policies
treasure fleet
forbidden city
war in korea
and silver shortage

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1911

Manchus return stability
blending Chinese culture and Manchu military
expand the empire
confucian conservatism

Fall of the Ming


Jurchen leader unified the Manchus
Peasant army toppled Beijing
the unpaid army abandoned the city
peasant leader died
Manchus took control

Imbalanced trade


Tea, porcelain, silk <-> SILVER

Chinese trade restrictions

1685 - 1842

trade restricted to Canton
Europeans face higher tarifs and more rules
colonies and controled trade

China takes in 3M oz of silver


China takes in 16M oz of silver


Macartney Mission


sent to negotiate trade agreement
seen by Emperor as tribute mission

Opium sales in China


used to balance trade
200 chests 1729
4574 chests 1800
40000 chests 1838

2-10M addicts
massive silver outflow

Empress Dowager Cixi

1835 - 1908

concubine to Emperor
gave birth to Tongzhi
regent queen

1st opium war

1839 - 1842

British parliament declares war on China
China's navy is inadequate

Treaty of Nanjing


Cohongs abolished
5 new treaty ports
Hong Kong given in perpetuity
21M Indemnity

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

Hung Hsu-Chuan
failed civil service exam
forms "celestial kingdom of peace" Taiping
20,000 followers by 1850
anti confucian, manchu, opium, gambling
falls to GB, France, and Qing in 1864
20-30M die

2nd opium war

1857 - 1860

GB and France

unequal treaties


division of China
spheres of Influence
80 treaty ports
99 year lease on "New Territories"
"slowly drifting until she is dashed to pieces on the shore"

Treaty of Tianjin


more treaty ports
opium sales legalized
foreigners in Beijing

self strengthening movement

1862 - 1874

"practical knowledge mixed with Chinese mentality"
started by Cixi
canceled due to ideas of democracy

Meiji Restoration

1868 - 1912

from field to factory in 40 years
highly successful
westernized model of modernization

Sino-US relations


US supports CKS instead of CCP
relations tarnished by opium trade

rebuilding of summer palace

1886 - 1891

by Cixi
seen as excessive spending

Mao Zedong

1893 - 1976

Sino-Japanese War


fought over and in Korea

Treaty of Shimonseki


china ceded Taiwan and hegemony over Korea
4 new treaty ports
loss of face

100 Day Reform

6/11/1898 - 9/20/1898

Guangxu attempted to reform China
reforms of:
civil service exams
vocational schools
wester military and legal system
communications and postal system
institute constitutional monarchy

declared insane by CIxi
removed from throne and placed under house arrest

Boxer Indemnity


cancel civil service exams
execute leaders
no weapons to be imported
fined 450M taels of silver ($335M)

Boxer Rebellion


Society of Righteous Harmony 1889
attacking foreigners
killed 250 in 1900
others flee to British legation
under siege from June to Aug 1900
Cixi backs boxers

Puyi placed on throne


Cixi places Puyi on throne then dies

Warlord Era

1912 - 1927

China divided and abused by warlords

Sun Yat Sen Resigns


forced to flee the country
china left with warlords
KMT reduced to rule only Nanjing

May 4th Movement


treaty of Versailles
shandong to Japanese
protesting for a central government
modern protest

Birth of CCP

july 1921

1st United Front

1926 - 1927

KMT CCP and Warlords
followed by "bloody double cross' by KMT

Nanjing Decade

1927 - 1937

KMT in control
Ching Kai Shek in charge
"Asian George Washington"

Japanese Raids

1931 - 1937

Long March

1934 - 1935

6000 mile long retreat of CCP
100000 begin 7000 survive
won the hearts of peasants
new generation of leaders
Mao Tse Tung emerges as sole leader of CCP

Second United Front

1936 - 1945

KMT and CCP agree to fight Japan

Civil War

1945 - 1949

KMT controlled urban
CCP controlled rural
KMT retreats to Taiwan

US refused to recognize CCP


Maoist China

1949 - 1976

Established PRC
CCP, Government, PLA (people's liberation army)
5 year plans
land reform
struggle sessions

Korean War

1950 - 1953

US 45000 dead
NK 600000
SK 400000
China 700000-900000

first 5 year plan

1952 - 1957

use agricultural surplus to build industry
success of early collectives

100 Flowers Campaign


300,000 branded as "rightists"
"better red than expert'

Great Leap Forward

1959 - 1962

catch up to England is 15 years
super sized comunes
backyard furnaces
1958 grain and steel production plummets
375M tons of grain reported
215M tons produces
large famine
20M deaths


1962 - 1966

Deng Xiaoping in control
Mao becomes figurehead

Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1976

Pragmatist Deng Xiaoping in charge
Cult of Mao
attack "capitalist roadsters"
leftists back in power
Red Guards sent to countryside

Usuri River


US realized that China is anti-russian

Nixon Visits China


Shanghi Communique


"There is only one China of which Taiwan is a part"

Dung Xiaoping

1979 - 1997

Economic pragmatist and social conservative
Rebuilds China after GLF
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
welcomes foreign investors
GDP per capita up 400%
"to get rich is glorious"
strong believer in party control

Change in Mandate of Heaven


Mao Dies
Fall of the Gang of Four
Jiang Qing and 3 other untra-leftists
unsure of who has Guanxi

student protests in Tienamen Square

4/21/1989 - 5/4/1989

4/21 100,000 morn in sqare for Hu Yaohang
upcoming Gorbachev visit
4/23 students boycott classes
5/4 journalists protest
5/13 "hunger strike"
5/15 Gorbachev arrives
5/18 1 million people march
students demanding:
-publish government salaries
-increased money for education
-freedom of press
"Soviet Union has Gorbachev. Who does China have?"
"Gorbachev 58; Deng 85"
"Deng your health may be good, but is your brain"

Tianamen Square Massacre


"clear the square"
300-3000 dead
1000 arrested
leads to international condemnation

Hong Kong returned to China


Beijing Olypics



Dehli Sultanates

1206 - 1526

Indo-Muslim fusion
Mostly Hindu with smaller Muslim kingdoms as well
India broken up into many pieces

Timund Empire

1370 - 1507

Established Tamerlane a "princeling" and descendant of Genghis Khan

Invasion of Dehli



1483 - 1530

princeling to conquerer
conquered Samarkand and Kabul
developed progressive tax system

Invasion of India


Battle of Panipat
Babur wins due to guns/better technology

Mughal Dynasty

1526 - 1857

Akbar the Great

1556 - 1605

wise ruler
religious tolerance
expands the empire
accepting of hindus

EIC charter


British East India Company given royal charter by Queen Elizabeth


1605 - 1627

poor leader

Shah Jahan

1628 - 1658

Akbars Grandson,
known for architecture built:
Taj Mahal
Red Fort
Wariz Khan Mosque
slightly reverses religious tolerance
places economic strain on empire


1658 - 1707

religious intolerance
larger but weaker empire: broken up into small principles with questionable loyalty

EIC right to rule


King Charles II granted WEIC right to govern in India

last 50 years Moghals


8 emperors
4 murdered 1 deposed

Battle of Plassey


Company gains control of Bengal
establishes Sir Robert Clive "Of India"

British East India Company

1757 - 1858

British East India Company ruling India through Nabobs

lessons from 1857


need to restructure military
need to bring Indians into goverment

Jhansi Lakshmibai


civilian leader in sepoy rebellion

Events of 1857


rebellion, mutiny, or war of independence?
300,000 sepoys in EIC army
loss of caste importance
slow promotions, loss of pensions
discontent among civilians
high taxes
land reform
treatment of mughal emperor
fear of religious imperialism
banning sati
allowing widows to remarry

the uprising


soldiers in Meerut revolted
killed british officers
marched to Delhi
seized the Red Fort
210 british women and children killed

GB rule of India

1858 - 1947

Mohandas Ghandi

1869 - 1948

Satyagraha "last resort of those strong enough in their commitment to truth to undergo suffering in its cause"

Solidarity between Indians of different faiths
Removal of untouchability
Boycott of manufactured foreign goods
Revival of Indian industry

INC founded


All Muslim League founded



1914 - 1918

Increased international status
1.5M Indians served
lead to post war economic struggles as Great Britain raised taxes to pay for war costs

Amritsar Massacre


government reported 397 dead, INC claimed over 1000

Champaran Agitation


high taxes during famine
Mahatma "The Great Soul"
civil disobedience protoest

Salt Marches


use of international media

Quit India Movement


noncooperation in WWII

Nehru Years

1947 - 1964

"3rd world country"
non alignment always questioned

centrally planned 5 year plans
fabian socialism
state run industries
food productions
from 51M to 82M tons
population increase from 360M to 440M

Indian National Constitution

january 1950

Sino India War


India humiliated

Indira Gandhi

1966 - 1977

elected PM
Green revolution:
food crisis
wanted to become self sufficient
worked but not universal

Emergency Period

1975 - 1977

tarnished reputation
declares state of emergency
civil rights suspended
opposition arrested
"D.E.M. O'crasy beloved husband of T.Ruth, father of L.I.Bertie, Brother of Faith, Hope, and Justice expired on 26 June" obituary in The Times of India

aftermath of emergency

1977 - 1980

Indira steps down
new elections
return of corruption

Indira Ghandi

1980 - 1984

Indira's second term
ended with operation blue star June 1984
100s died as protesting Siks in the Golden temple were killed
India assassinated by bodyguards

Rajiv Gandhi

1984 - 1991

assassinated by Tamil Tigers

Sonia Gandhi

1991 - 2014

Forbes 9th most powerful woman in the world
Italian born, president of Congress Party
Rahul VP of congress

Current Election


Modi wins for Hindu Nationalists with "potty politics"