The Holocaust

Main

Adolf Hitler

January 30, 1933

Adolf Hitler becomes the chancellor of Germany.

Dachau Concentration Camp

March 22, 1933

The first concentration camp, Dachau was established. Political prisoners were incarcerated here at first.

Boycott

April 1, 1933

Hitler announces a state boycott of all Jewish businesses and shops

The Gestapo

April 26, 1933

The Gestapo ("Geheime Stat Polizei"-Secret State Police) was established.

Burned Books

May 10, 1933

Books by Jewish, handicapped and undesirable authors were burned.

Leader

August 2, 1934

Hitler proclaims himself "Fuhrer" or leader.

Signs

May, 1935

"No Jew" signs and notices are being posted outside German towns and villages, and also outside shops and restaurants.

Nuremburg Laws

September 10, 1935

The Nuremburg laws are released. These laws deprived the Jews of basic rights, such as citizenship and the right to marry whomever they would like.

Doctors

March 3, 1936

Jewish doctors are no longer permitted to practice medicine in German institution.

Buchenwald

July 16, 1937

Buchenwald concentration camp opens.

Refugee Policies

July 6, 1938

Representatives from thirty-two countries meet at Evian, France, to discuss refugee policies. Most of the countries refuse to let in more Jewish refugees.

ID Cards

July 23, 1938

The German government announces that Jews have to carry Identification cards

Kristallnacht

November 9, 1938

Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass): anti-Jewish pogrom in Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland; 200 synagogues were destroyed; 7,500 Jewish shops looted; 30,000 male Jews sent to concentration camps (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen).

Reparations

November 12, 1938

German Jews are ordered to pay one billion Reichsmarks in reparations for damages of Kristallinacht.

Expelled

November 15, 1938

All Jewish children are expelled from German schools and can attend only separate jewish schools.

Selling businesses

December 2, 1938

Jews must sell their businesses and real estate and hand over their jewelry to the government for very low prices.

No More Education

December 8, 1938

Jews may no longer are allowed to attend university as teachers or students.

Czechoslovakia

March 15, 1939

Germans occupy Czechoslovakia

Less Rationing

September 23, 1939

Jews are forced to turn in electrical objects to the police. Jews also receive less ration coupons for meat, milk etc. They also receive less ration coupons for clothing.

Polish Ghetto

October 28, 1939

The first Polish ghetto was established in Piotrkow.

Yellow Star

November 23, 1939

Jews in German-occupied Poland forced to wear an arm band or yellow star.

Auschwitz

May 20, 1940

A concentration camp is established in Auschwitz.

Biggest Ghetto

October, 1940

The biggest concentration camp was established in Warsaw.

Extermination Squads

July, 1941 - August, 1941

Thousands of Russian and Jews are murdered by the Einzatzgruppen (extermination squads) in the occupied territories.

Chelmno

December 8, 1941

Chelmno (Kulmhof) extermination camp begins operations: 340,000 Jews, 20,000 Poles and Czechs were murdered by April 1943.

Shifted To Death Camps

September 5, 1942 - September 12, 1942

Around fifteen thousand Jews in Lodz Ghetto are moved to Chelmno, mostly children under ten and individual over sixty-five. And by September 16, around fifty thousand Jews were moved to the death camp in Chelmno.

Resisting

April 19, 1943

16 Jews who were going to be moved from Warsaw ghetto to a German death camp but they resisted and fight back from deporting to the death camp.

Joseph Mengele Experimentation

May 30, 1943 - January 27, 1945

Mengele in a time period between his first arrival and the liberation of Auschwitz did uncountable numbers of experiments on humans at the Auschwitz camps. He did experiments on twins, women sterilization experiments, surgeries without anesthetic, inserted diseases, tested how long until people died under certain circumstances, and many other absolutely detestable, unbelievable, and mind-chilling experiments. He was nicknamed the “Angel of Death,” because he also was quite often on duty to decide who was going to live and who was going to be gassed or experimented on. Many consider Josef Mengele to be one of the sickest, twisted, psychopathic people to have ever existed.

Ghettos Destroyed

June, 1943

The Nazis ordered for the Ghettos in Soviet Union and Poland to be destroyed.

Deportation

May 15, 1944

The Nazis deported over 430,000 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz

Rebels at Auschwitz

October 7, 1944

The prisoners at Auschwitz death camp rebel and blew up one of the crematorium

The Death March

January 17, 1945

The Nazis has cleared the people up the Auschwitz concentration camp and started to make the prisoners do the “death march” to Germany

USA Comes Over

April, 1945

United States went in and saved the survivors from Buchenwald and Dachau concentration camps.

Suicide

April 30, 1945

Adolf Hitler decides to commit suicide in his bunker in Berlin because he didn't want to be caught alive by the Soviet Union.

Defeated

May 7, 1945

Germany surrenders and the World War ends in Europe.