Untitled timeline


humayan at safavid court of shah tahmasp

Approx. 1540 - Approx. 1550

having been exiled

humayun regains empire

22 Feb 1555 - 27 Jan 1556

son of babur


11 February 1556 - 27 October 1605

salim satellite court allahabad

1602 - October 1605


15 October 1605 - 8 November 1627

shah jahan

19 january 1628 - 31 july 1658


31 july 1658 - 3 march 1707

bahadur shah

19 june 1707 - 27 february 1712

muhammad shah

27 september 1719 - 26 april 1748


dust muhammad

Approx. 1546 - Approx. 1550

persian artist, later comes to mughal court 1555-early 1560s, when he returns to iran
painting: 1) humayan celebrating circumcision of young akbar. persian style, carried out in kabul.

abd al-samad

Approx. 1550 - 1595

persian, came with humayun. headed imperial workshop of akbar from 1572. second in a'in-i-akbari artist list.
paintings: 1) prince akbar presents painting to humayun in treehouse, 1554-5. 2) groom and horse, gulshan album.


Approx. 1556 - Approx. 1600

composition and portraiture in akbarnama. influenced by abd al-samad, son was manohar.
paintings: 1) akbar riding elephant hawai, 1561. 2) akbar watching a fight between two bands of hindu, 1586-9. 3) madonna, 1590.


Approx. 1560 - 1584

favourite of akbar, third in list in a'in-i-akbari.
painting: 1) umar slays a dragon, 2) 1582 - descent of ganga (b and w)

kesu das

Approx. 1570 - Approx. 1602

hindu artist best known for copies and adaptations of european prints, evolving atelier of akbar. named fifth in a'in-i-akbari. worked on hamzanama, akbarnama, timurnama, baburnama etc. may have died late 1500s or joined workshop of prince salim.
painting: 1580-5, st jerome.


Approx. 1580 - Approx. 1620

son of basawan: grew up in atelier, khanazad. spans akbar and jahangir. court etiquette, european influences - well acquainted with western painting.
Paintings 1) majnun kneeling before allegorical woman, 2) salim enthroned 1600-1, 3) jahangir in darbar (jharokha with mary painting and crowd) 1620


Approx. 1586 - Approx. 1624

colourist on akbarnama, floruished under jahangir - work in nature and animals. 'nadir al asr', unequalled of the age.
paintings 1) akbarnama qamargah hunt, likely just assistant, c.1586-9, 2) salim enthroned 1600-1, 3) zebra, 1621.


Approx. 1586 - Approx. 1589

many outlines and compositions in akbarnama

abu'l hasan

Approx. 1589 - Approx. 1630

son of aqa riza, began working for jahangir before accession to throne. does squirrels in a plane tree. documenting events at imperial court, many excellent portraits. jahangir called him nadir-uz-saman: 'wonder of the age'.
paintings: 1) jahangir holding portrait of akbar, 1614, 2) jahangir holding portrait of virgin, 1610, 3) Jahangir embracing Shah Abbas, 1618, 4) jahangir appearing at jharoka window, 1618-20, 5) accession of jahangir (chaotic crowd), 1617-18


Approx. 1595 - Approx. 1655

brother balchand. may have started career under akbar. none attributable under jahangir but many under shah jahan. atmospheric, intense. often battle scenes tightly structured, but can also create faithful to life scenes with european influence.
paintings: 1) shah jahan riding stallion, 1627, 2) siege of qandahar, 1633, 3) soldiers at dusk under mango tree, 1640.


Approx. 1596 - Approx. 1645

khanazad. worked for akbar, jahangir, shah jahan. soft modelling and muted colours, attention to detail such as cloth and hands. european influence. illustrator of jahangir albums inc. baburnama.
paintings: 1) shah jahan in landscape, timur in landscape (minto album), c.1600-18, 2) ascetics


1596 - 1640

brother of payag. painting: 1) inayat khan dying. european realism, psychological study. 1618.


Approx. 1615 - Approx. 1660

painted for jahangir, shah jahan, and probably aurangzeb. includes self in painting jahangir 1616; shows status. hindu as seen from dress. portraitist and commemorator of occasions. carefully copied european prints to learn, influencing putti etc., and used indian landscapes with european style perspective.
paintings: 1) jahangir preferring sufi shaykh to kings c.1615-18, 2) padshahnama shah jahan receiving eldest sons and asaf khan at accession (strange perspective showing status), c.1630.


1627 - 1670

paintings: 1) 1627-8, shah jahan on terrace with pendant set with his portrait. luxurious, portrait within portrait.

nainsukh of guler

Approx. 1730 - Approx. 1775

born to family of painters outside of atelier who worked in mughal style, likely demonstrated worth and was accepted to court of muhammad shah. depicts both court and moments of everyday life. less idealised than other artists of time.
painting: 1) muhammad shah making love c.1735.