How significant was the development of Parliament,1566-88

Between 1559 and 1588 Elizabeth summoned five parliament, which sat for eight sessions, creating a total of 22 months and all.

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Accession of Elizabeth

November 1558

Elizabeth came to the throne.

Geneva bible published

1560

The Geneva bible was published, with Calvinist notes.

parliament assembled

January 1563 - January 1567

parliament assembled in January. Parliament was called to ask subsidies after the interventions in France and Scotland these were granted with out difficulty. Acts were passed that were to regulate apprenticeship, give relief to the poor, protect and maintain the navy( Mary had done most of the work).
Elizabeth was faced by a petition, which had the support of the Commons, Lords and members of the Privy Council- which asked her to marry and also to allow the debate of succession. Another bill was passed that strengthened penalties for refusing the oath of supremacy- this passed both houses, if the oath was refused both times punished by death, Elizabeth did not VETO this bill but she told her bishops not to offer a second time. Elizabeth promised to consider marriage and succession, then she prorogued parliament.
Parliament re-assembled in october 1566, subsidies granted(peace time ). the issue of succession was raised by the Duke of Norfolk, this was followed by a campaign in both Lords and commons- this was probably orchestrated by members of the Privy Council - including Cecil. The commons tried to place pressure on the queen by attempting to delay the subsidy bill until after the debate. However in November Elizabeth met a delegation where she said that the matter fell with in her prerogative- which prevented the debate taking place, which lead MP Paul Wentworth raising the issue of free speech. Elizabeth remedy the situation by confirming Commons privileges in general terms and a sign of good will Elizabeth readmitted one third of the subsidies.
The Subsidy bill was passed but Cecil attached a statement to the bill that the queen promised to name a successor. Elizabeth forced the removal of the attachment. At the same time parliament was considering bills for the reformation of the church. With a lack of time, parliament prioritised a bill to give statutory confirmation to the thirty-nine articles, which would have enabled them to weed out conservatives/catholic clergy. Elizabeth declared that it infringed on her prerogative and her right to control religious injunctions. As a response commons refused to pass a 11 bills awaiting conformation, Elizabeth dissolved parliament ing January 1567

parliament prorogued

April 1563

thirty nine articles

suspension of clergy

March 1566

suspension of clergy leads to Parker's Advertisements and the Vestiarian controversy.

The arrival of Mary Queen of Scots

1568

The arrival of Mary Queen of Scots in England.

Northern rebellion defeated

1569

The northern rebellion was defeated.

Papal Bull

1570

Issue of the papal bull excommunicating Elizabeth, declaring her deposed

Parliament

1571

Parliament was summoned in the aftermath of the Northern rebellion and the papal bull excommunicating and deposing Elizabeth. Cecil asked Elizabeth to call parliament one year earlier, however she refused because she feared more issues over marriage and succession. these issues were not raised by parliament- this could reflect the privy councils influence over parliament and their loyalty and support for the Queen. Several act were passed to handle the rebels, including the renewal of the treason act of 1534. they also imposed measures to prevent published copies of the papal bull and anyone who claimed a right to the throne. there was also an attempt by Thomas Norton to exclude Mary Queen of Scots from the line of succession- this was softened and sidetracked. the focus shifted towards religious measures and attempts to re-introduce the alphabet bills which were lost in 1566. council and bishops expected to proceed in co-operation with commons, this did not happen due to Strickland who introduced a motion for reform of cannon law and then a bill to revise the Prayer book, both of these were infringements of Elizabeths prerogative. This was based mainly on lectures given at cambridge by Presbyterian, Thomas Cartwright. Strickland was arrested, However peter Wentworth raised the issue of commons privileges. Strickland was released and punished by the house of commons. Only one religious bill passed after this and that was that there must be attendance at church, which included taking communion (would drive out 'Church -Papists') - this act was vetoed by Elizabeth, then she dissolved parliament.

The Duke of Norfolk

January 1572

The Duke of Norfolk tried and sentenced for treason. For medications try to introduce a bill stating the act of uniformity being forced only against Catholics. How early to set aside to avoid conflict between the Queen and focus on Mary and Norfolk, however Elizabeth responded by ordering Manila bells on religion should be introduced into parliament except through consultation with the Bishop. Elizabeth refuse to allow the build has Marie executed as a traitor, but eventually agree totally feeling haven't succession. Elizabeth also excepted Norfolk's execution, but on Royal orders, not Parliamentary statue. Delegates may went to the queen at the end of session June 1572, saying that it needed amendment. Parliament prorogued and till 1576 and the bill was lost.

reassembled parliament

1572 - 1581

A new partner was summoned, assembled in March 15 and beauty in the aftermath of the Ridofi plot.
Puritan lawyer Robert Bell was the chosen speaker.
The the focus of the parliament was Norfolk and Mary Queen of Scots.

Norfolk executed

June 1572

Norfolk executed for treason.

Peter Wentworth in Parliament

1576

Highly reassembled 1576. Despite Peter went well, agree harmonious session. Comments agreed to suggestion by speaking to let nations be examined in committee before being debated, to speed up business and stop time wasting. And were launched to track and will interference, and use of commons, he wanted total freedom of speech. He was still an excluded by the commons, Then sent to the tower also by the commons. When I was released and restored by the Queen one month later. Meanwhile, has granted subsidies and return to church reforms, but couched petitions to the Queen and was,therefore well received. Similarly, Petition to the Queen to marry.

Discussion of marriage

1579 - 1581

the Discussion of marriage took place between Elizabeth and Alencon.

Arrival of Jesuit priests

1580

The Arrival of Jesuit priests- Jesuits were trained to carry out spiritual exercises designed to cultivate a profound religious experience. they were effective at reviving latent beliefs in former catholics and hence were significant threat to the stability of the realm. The first two to arrive were Parsons and Campion- they first established safe houses where arriving new jesuits could hide from authorities.

Parliament recalled

January 1581

Parliament was called because of deteriorating foreign policy's with Spain and renewed and catholic fears. That examples of Catholic missions to England had appeared- Campion and Pearsons, along with an attempt to land papal troops in Ireland. Subsidies were granted. Session focused on anti-Catholic legislation, managed to promote by privy councillors the main differences were between and how harsh they should be and how far they should protect Puritans from coming within the scope of the legislation. The Queen intervened in the Lords to soften the anti-Catholic legislation, while Norton and Burghley able to restrict the impact of the sedition Bill on non-Catholic recusants and nonconformists. Committing religion managed by Mildmay and Walsingham Putin measures, but helpful conferences were sympathetic they should avoid conflict and articles handed to the Queen to be implemented by Royal properties lest got done, but conflict was avoided.

Throckmorton Conspiracy

1583

After the failure of the Rodolfi plot and execution of Norfolk, people were still prepared to remove Elizabeth and give the throne to Mary, as it would satisfy their diplomatic objectives. in 1583 Walsingham uncovered such a plot. The catholic Duke of Guise and the Spanish ambassador Mendoza conspired to reassert power into Scotland and use Scotland as a base for invading England, with the intention to over throw Elizabeth and placing Mary on the throne. The plot was dissevered after the arrest of Francis Throckmorton, who was the intermediate between Mary and Mendoza. This plot conformed the fears of the Privy council that an alliance between Spain and France would be directed against protestant England. this provoked a severe reaction. Mary however again escaped with her life - Elizabeth still believed that should could not harm Mary because of the divine right of Kings. Mendoza was expelled from England and the privy council drew up the bonds of association.

Parliament prorogued and dissolved

March 1583

Anti catholic laws passed; parliament prorogued March , dissolved in 1583

Bond of Association

1584

After increasing threats to Elizabeth life the Privy council drew up the bonds of association. The signatories to the bond of association swore to defend Elizabeth's life and to prevent a 'pretended successor' from attempting to take the throne by means of plots and assassination, the association first included Mary and her son James.
Threats to Elizabeths life and the consequences of not having a successors, would have causes great issues for the realm this was clear- the problem would have had to be solved poetically and diplomatically.

New parliament

November 1584 - March 1585

New parliament meets because of fears and threats abroad and religious tension at home cause by Archbishop Whitgift's campaign to force Puritans into conformity. The majority of the government business was to provide subsidies after the English intervention in the Netherlands.  corporation breakdown when dr Peter Turner can't introduce a bill to revise the prayer book and substitute Genevan services. The bills dropped. Comments and not drop a list of reforms I'll give greater freedom to the clergy to adapt the PowerBook, Elizabeth intervened to prevent legislation. Walshingham arranged a series of conferences with Bishops to mitigate the persecution. Prorogued in March 1585.

Aid to the Netherlands

1585

English sent aid to the Netherlands- February
Parliament prorogued- March
parliament dissolved in 1586

Philip prepares

October 1585

Philip of Spain prepares for the Armada.

Parliament dissolved

September 1586

Parliament was finally dissolved after being Prorogued in March 1585.

Babington plot

October 1586

Walsingham was convinced that there were men plotting to kill Elizabeth and replace her with Mary, but he needed proof. Mary had been moved into the custody Sir Amyas Paulet, He kept Mary isolated from the outside world in chartley hall in Staffordshire. Pualet a radical puritan and proof impervious to Mary's charm. Is not prepared to trust her as previous jailers had done and inspected the correspondence to and from Mary.
In opportunity to truck man came after he had arrested catholic exile, Gilbert Guildford: 1585. Girlfriend confessed to having plotted on those behalf and agree to act as a double agent for his release. Guildford was instrumental in setting up a method of communication between Mary and the French ambassadors by concealing letters in a watertight box in a beer casket. Marie is an impression that she could now correspond freely, having overcome Pualet's inspections.
Mary's compliancy in the pot against Elizabeth was finally uncovered when she agreed to the terms of Babington plot hatched in1586. A member of the catholic Gentry Anthony babington, Was persuaded to land insurrection on English Catholics to coincide with an invasion led by the catholic league. The plot had Spanish and people support the services of assassin John Savage, and ex-soldier who had sworn to kill Elizabeth. Mary agreed to the plot and wrote emphasising the need for foreign help. W now had the previously needed to remove Mary Queen of Scots.

New parliament

October 1586 - March 1587

New parliament opened, to addressing the growing threat of war abroad and Mary,queen of Scots at home.
Subsidies granted as asked, and parliament offered more if the the Queen agreed to become ruler of the Netherlands (she was offered the title by Protestant rebels) - Elizabeth refused.
The Puritans still continued their campaign to reform the church, this was led by Travers and Field, also joined by Cartwright, who returned from exile in Geneva. A 'Book of Discipline' had been drawn up to replace the Prayer book, and a huge number of petitions to parliament had been prepared. One organised by Field and presented to parliament in 1586, this petition came from 2,537 parishes. However when parliament re-assembled, the discover of the Babington plot placed Mary queen of Scots as the focus of the concerns of parliament. Mary Queen of Socts was convicted of treason in October 1586, however Elizabeth delayed signing a death warrant. The focus of the council became, getting Elizabeth to sign the warrant this lasted until February 1587. At that point the bill to reform the Prayer book (copes bill) was presented by Anthony Cope, but the speaker refused to let it be read out, citing the Queens embargo of 1572. Four Purtian MP's challenged the ruling and Peter Wentworth again protested freedom of speech, but Sir Christopher Hatton prevented a debate and the Queen confiscated the bill. Wentworth and others were sent to the tower for private 'plotting' outside parliament, which were not protected by parliamentary privileges. they remained in the tower until parliament was dissolved in March 1587

execution of Mary

February 1587

Mary queen of Scots was executed for treason

The defeat of the Spanish Armada

July 1588

Elizabeth defeated the Spanish and there navy. The English victory was due to the bad English weather that the Spanish weren't use to and the that they were more skilled at sailing the English channel.

New parliament after the defeat of the Spanish Armada.

1589

After the defeat of the Spainish Armada a new parliament was called, to a new political scene. Succession was no longer a problem- Mary was dead and James, her protestant son would become her successor; James would forget any grudges and would take the English throne. The puritan leaders were dying- Thomas Norton in1584, John Field 1588, Cartwight 1590. Also many powerful MP's died Earl of Bedford 1585, Leicester 1588, Mildmay 1589 and Walsingham in 1590. Conflict did not disappear from Elizabeths parliaments, but it took a different shape and focus, in which religion and the succession meant very different things.