The European Movement

Main

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

Hand production was replaced with machines, chemical manufacturing, and water and steam power.
Wood and other biofuels were replaced with coal.
Textiles dominant form of employment, value output, and capital invested.
*Average income and population sustained growth.

North American Revolution

1775 - 1787

Conservative political movement.
Aimed to preserve colonial liberties.
Colonists regarded autonomy as their birthright.
*Paved the way for many other revolutions in which the people demanded a more representative government.

Abolition of Slavery

1780

Enlightenment thinkers were increasingly critical of slavery.
Religious groups, especially Quakers, and Protestant evangelicals more vocal in opposition to slavery.
Movements most powerful in Britain.
*Began a radical change in thought of the validity of race superiority.

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Attempted to modernize tax system to make it more spread out among the classes.
Driven by pronounced social conflicts.
Violent, far-reaching, radical.
National Assembly was created and drew up the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
*Marked decline of powerful monarchies and churches and rise of democracy and nationalism.

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

War between a number of factions.
Focused on French Colony of Saint Domingue which was renamed Haiti after the revolution.
Power gradually shifted to the slaves who were lead by former slave Toussaint Louverture.
Declared equality for all races.
*The only successful slave revolt in history.

Latin American Revolution

1810 - 1825

Inspired by earlier revolutionary movements.
Fear of social rebellion from below shaped the whole independence movement.
Native born elites in Spanish colonies of Latin America were offended at the Spanish monarchy's efforts to control them in the 18th century.
*Newly independent Latin American states remained economically dependent on Europe.

Congress of Vienna

1815

Provide long term peace for Europeans by settling issues of French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.
First in a set of meetings that became known as the Concert of Europe which was an attempt to establish a European balance of power.
Model for later organizations such as the League of Nations and the United Nations.
*Framework for European international politics until World War 1.

Unification of Italy

1815 - 1871

Political and Social movement that resulted in the different states of the Italian Peninsula uniting.
Began with Congress of Vienna and ended when Rome became capitol.
Nationalist movement dedicated to unification led by Giuseppe Mazzini and Count Camillo di Cavour through combination of war and diplomacy.
*Limited presence of masses and lack of modern land reform.

Trade Unions Legalized

1824

Growing number of factory workers joined them.
Sought change for children workers as well.
Fought for better wages and conditions.
*Reaction to industrial Revolutions effects on society.

First Opium War

1838 - 1842

Conflict fought between Britain and China over British sale of Opium in China.
China maintained a favorable balance of trade, Europeans demanded Chinese goods.
Britain's superior military led to a decisive victory over the Chinese.
*Considered beginning of modern Chinese history.

Women's Right Conference in Seneca Falls

1848

First organized expression of Feminism.
Transatlantic from the beginning.
Argued for a radical transformation in the position of women in society.
*Declaration of Sentiments became single most important factor in spreading news of women's rights movement around country.

California Gold Rush

1849

News of gold brought 300,000 prospectors from around the world.
Mainly returned home with little more than they started out with.
Attacks on Native Americans and damage to environment.
*Led to the establishment of California as a state.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

Rebellion by Chinese peasants against Qing dynasty.
Redistribution of land, public education, and rights for women were among the issues pressed.
The rebellion failed.
*At least 20 million people died in this Civil War which makes it one of the deadliest military conflicts in history.

Arrival of Commodore Perry in Japan

1853

Forced Japan open to foreign trade.
The US wanted to find new markets following India and Japan offered new economic opportunities.
Japanese isolation ended, and it focused on rapid modernization.
*Opened Japan to Western ideas.

Meiji Restoration

1868

A centralized government established with a new constitution, set up two house system where the emperor had the most control.
Modernized nation by selectively borrowing Western ideas.
Japan quickly industrialized with support of the government.
*Led to Japan being a dominant and leading world country.

Unifcaiton of Germany

1871

Otto von Bismarck led unification and used war and diplomacy to unite country.
German dualism with Austria and Prussia.
Process began after dissolution of Holy Roman Empire and rise of nationalism spread during Napoleonic Wars.
*Transport and communication improvements tightened German society.

Colonial Conquest of Africa

1875 - 1900

King Leapold of Belgium established a colony known as the Congo Free State in Africa.
Leapold used forced labor to ensure profitability of rubber plantation.
Berlin Conference held to discuss rules for colonizing Africa.
*Partitioning of Africa was how Europeans avoided warring over themselves for Africa.


A picture of the Berlin Conference, which divided African territories into colonies for the Europeans.

Establishment of Indian National Congress

1885

Nationalist group formed in British India by upper class Hindus.
Sought to serve all Indians.
Initially a forum to express concerns to colonial officials on taxes, later called for Indian self-rule.
*Pivotal in Indian independence movement against British colonial rule.

Sino-Japanese War

1894 - 1895

Fought over control of Korea.
Regional dominance shifted from China to Japan.
Loss in China led to a series of reforms that later manifested in the 1911 Revolution.
*Clear indication of Qing's failure to modernize country.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 - 1900

Imperial support in the rebellion against foreigners and Chinese Christians.
Sought to rid China of foreign influence.
*The "Great Powers" realized that the best way to deal with China was through the Chinese dynasty, instead of directly dealing with the Chinese people.

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Imperial rivalries led to armed conflict for control of parts of Korea and Manchuria.
Battled on both land and sea, with Japan victorious.
Japan's victory over China worried the Russians who had hopes of controlling northern Asia.
*Considered first great war of the 20th century.

Bloody Sunday

1905

A peaceful demonstration at the Russian czars winter palace in St. Petersburg turned violent when the czars guards opened fire on the unarmed crowd.
Unrest broke out across the country and soon soviets were organized seeking to organize strikes and gain political rights.
Many lost faith in the Romanovs and the stage was set for the end of imperial rule.
*Russia's first parliament, the Duma was created

Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1920

Uprising led by Francisco Madero against Porfirio Diaz.
Shifted from a revolt against established order to multi-sided Civil War.
Porfirio uprooted agrarian lifestyle of peasants, which was a cause of anger that led to the revolution.
*US involvement led to strained relations with Mexico.

Chinese Revolution

1911

Overthrew Qing dynasty and established Republic of China.
Response to government's ineffective efforts to modernize.
Made worse by the ethnic resentment of the ruling Manchu minority.
*End of Imperial China

Outbreak of World War 1

1914

After the assassination of Francis Ferdinand, Germany pledged its support to Austria-Hungary.
Their declaration of war on Serbia then spurred Britain to get involved and led to the outbreak of war.
*Threatened European balance of power with the existing alliances.