The Berlin Conference partitioned Africa into colonies ruled by Great Britain, France, Portugal, Germany, Spain, Belgium, and Italy. Only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free. The divisions of the Berlin Conference were carried out without regard for ethnic and cultural groups. Boundaries dividing the territories often cut through ethnic and cultural groups, placing members of a single group in different colonies dominated by different European powers. The divisions greatly disrupted traditional African cultural life, while they did add railways, roads, and other public works such as hospitals.