The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by Southern and Northern Dynasties, unified China for the first time after over a century of north-south division.Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui Dynasty capital was at Chang’an.
618 - 907
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was interrupted briefly by the Second Zhou Dynasty when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, becoming the only Chinese empress regnant, ruling in her own right.
Rise of Islam
Started by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, after his revelation with the Angel Gabriel. Would evolve into a major world religion becoming prominent in Africa, the Middle East, Indonesia, and even as far as the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
661 - 750
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was centered on the Umayyad dynasty hailing from Mecca. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abu
668 - 935
Kingdom of ancient Korea that in AD 668 unified togethor on the Korean peninsula under the Unified Silla dynasty. The Silla dynasy emerged as a full-fledged kingdom in the 6th century coming out of Chinese control. In a unique military corps, was organized; allied with Tang-dynasty. Adopted a Chinese bureaucratic structure, but its aristocracy was never replaced by a bureaucratic class based on merit.
710 - 794
Period of Japanese history during which the emperor resided in Nara. The capital city was modeled on the capital of Tang-dynasty China, Chang’an, from whom the Japanese borrowed extensively in this period. Buddhism, which had entered Japan a little more than a century earlier, rose in popularity, and many temples and statues were commissioned. The Chinese writing system was introduced and modified by the Japanese allowing two official histories and the earliest Japanese poetry collections to be produced. The Taiho Code, was based on Chinese law, and the Chinese equal-field system of land distribution, though no longer rigorously enforced, continued to remain in effect.
Battle of Tours
Battle in France between European forces and Islamic. The Islamic forces were pushing greatly into Europe and without a European victory, the Islamic forces may of been able to push even further if not, all the way through Europe.
762 - 1258
The second of the two great Sunnite dynasties of the Islamic Caliphate. The Umayyad enforcement of a new policy, wherein non-Arab Muslims were relegated to a lower status, led to a revolution in which the ‘Abbasids claimed the Caliphate and enforced a more universal community of believers. Islam flourished underneath there rule and influence.
Heian era in Japan
794 - 1185
Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. Many of the imported ideas were gradually “Japanized”. In order to meet particular Japanese needs, several governmental offices were established in addition to the government system which was copied after the Chinese model.
960 - 1127
Song dynasty reestablishes centralized control over China. Created friendly tribute systems with nomadic people to prevent invasions. China went through a major economical revolution while under the Song dynasty.
schism of Christianity
The Rome Pope and the Byzantine Patriarch mutually excommunicated with each other leading to several years of disagreement and tension between the two Christian braches after the fall of Rome.
England invaded by Normans
William the conqueror leads an invasion out of northern France against the Saxons and creating their own establishment in what is now England.
Holy war lead by Christian forces desiring to take Jerusalem, the holy land, and to eradicate Islamic influence in that area. This would lead to three more crusades which weren't successful.
Fall of Constantinople
The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Turks.The Empire by this time consisted only of the city of Constantinople itself, the rest having been gradually conquered in the previous decades and centuries. In the over 1000 years of the existence of the Empire, Constantinople had been besieged many times, but had been taken only once, during the Fourth Crusade. However, no enemy of Byzantium had ever specifically set out to conquer the Empire and actually succeeded.
Mongol takeover of China
1206 - 1279
Genghis Khan was not satisfied to rule only his fellow Mongolians. Under his leadership the armies of Mongolia first conquered the other steppe nomads. These conquered peoples paid the Mongols tributes, giving them increased wealth. They also provided thousands of soldiers to fight in the Mongolian armies.In 1211 A.D., an army of over 100,000 horsemen invaded China. By 1270 A.D., all of China lay under the control of the Mongols.
Kingdom of Mali
1230 - 1600
Around 1200 A.D., a small city-state controlled by Ghana was able to win its independence. This city-state was named Mali. During the 1300s A.D., Mali expanded its territory and influence. By the late 1300s A.D., Mali controlled all of the former Kingdom of Ghana as well as much of the territory around it.Attacks from outside forces and their conquered peoples weakened the armies of Mali, causing the kingdom to split into several smaller city-states.
Mongols take Baghdad
Mongol forces lead an attack directly against the Islamic caliphate and was able to takeover its capital. This capturing of Baghdad marked the end of the Abbasid Caliphate.
Marco Polo's travels to China
1275 - 1292
Marco Polo’s travels to China immortalized in his Travels of Marco Polo. Marco, his father, and uncle set out from Venice reaching China. The Polos spent a total of 17 years in China. These expeditions made the transactions with China smoother in both traveling, or trading.
Ibn Battuta's travels
1325 - 1349
Ibn Battuta traveled as an Islamic merchant that recorded his adventure through areas in the Middle East, the Indian Ocean coast, and in many regions of Africa.
Bubonic plague spreads
The horrible disease struck Asia, Africa, and Europe. The people called this illness the Black Death. The disease started in Asia in the 1340’s. It quickly spread to Africa, and throughout Europe.In just two years, 25 million people died of the plague. In ten years, the plague had killed over 1/3 of Europe’s population.
Rise of Ming dynasty
Structures like the Great Wall and the Grand Canal were restored, and the Forbidden City was built during the rule of the first Ming Dynasty emperor. The new emperor focused greatly on China’s farmland and agricultural economy. As a result, China’s agriculture became a booming industry.Throughout the Ming Dynasty, the capital city would be moved between Nanjing and Beijing four different times.