The economy of England changed from mostly agricultural to mostly industrial partly do to the Scientific Revolution with echos of the Enlightenment.
Members of the titled nobility resisted and resented the monarchy's efforts to subject them to new taxes. Educated middle class were growing in numbers and were offended that they were excluded. Peasants, though largely free of serfdom, were subject to a variety of hated dues imposed by their landlords. These social conflicts gave rise to the French Revolution
Echo of the French revolution. The slave majority rebelled against powerful landlords. Led by Toussaint Louverture. A slave uprising that succeeded.
In a global perspective, China was on the decline and continued to believe that it was in the "middle" of the world although they were behind every other nation. Through this thought process, they declined the British on their request for open trade.
Napoleon easily defeated Egyptian and Turkish armies, temporarily deposing the Mamluks who ruled Egypt on behalf of the Ottomans. Ottoman authority was badly damaged.
Napoleon seized power for himself claiming the ideals of the French Revolution. He created the Bank of France and the Napoleonic Code however his dictatorship in many ways weakened France.
Arose from illegal trade of opium by manipulative British who intentionally want to bring China down through the harmful drug. The Chinese government tried to strike by seizing opium supplies outraging the British. After China closed off port, British forced humiliating treaty of Najing onto them.
First meeting at Seneca Falls, New York with the intention of pursuing the right to vote.
Written by Karl Marx was the Communist Manifesto which gave rise to the intermediate phase of communism in the form of socialism.
Realizing that their country was backward in a Western sense, Tsar Alexander II emancipated their serfs, ending feudalism in Russia. This is the start of Russia's true westernization.
Confederates versus Union. Fighting over rights of man stemming from the Enlightenment movement a few years earlier.
Meiji restoration included the ending of feudalism in Japan and starting their westernization. When Commodore Matthew Perry invaded and opened up Japan's ports, Japan became global. This movement made them become a very influential and powerful nation.
Ships using it could travel between Europe and India in less than two weeks - much less time than the month or longer consumed by sailing around Africa and across the Indian Ocean. By lowering freight costs, the canal stimulated shipping and the construction of steamships, giving an advantage of nations that had heavy industry and a large maritime trade over land-based empires and countries with few merchant ships.
US acquires the Philippines by annexation. It provided the US a superb naval base in the Pacific. The United States effectively stripped Spain of it's colonies.
The Chinese became angered at foreign influence and burst out of control. In the capital, Beijing, rebels attacked foreign residents and besieged foreign legations. The rebellion was put down by foreign troups and forced the Qing government to pay a heavy financial penalty.
The 1905 revolution was suppressed but forced the tsar's regime to make substantial reforms. They then granted a constitution which legalized trade unions and political parties and permitted the election of a national assembly called the Duma. About 40 percent of the workers went on strike in 1914 which showed that the few reforms made were not enough to bring social stability to Russia before their second revolution.
Due to the inability of various social classes to cooperate and lead by Hidalgo and Morelos who fought for freedom from Spain as well as social justice.
The nationalist party called the Guomindang and the Communist party were battling for power of China. Chiang Kaishek was defeated and communist power seized the throne. This time period saw civil war and decentralization.
Began with the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. The Triple Alliance vs. The Triple Entente eventually caused the fundamental shift in power. WWI also introduced new technology in war and new tactics such as trench warfare.