Mainly for practical teaching, ie agriculture, science and engineering. Introduces new general scientifically trained graduates to the US
French physiologist with first to have idea of homeostasis, as opposed to Pavlov works on his own in laboratory in Paris
Shared laboratory space in experimental physics, teaching and research but when degrees awarded in 1895 increasing number of researchers (also from abroad, ie Germany) and a boom in research. 1897 J.J. Thomson discovery electron.
Graduates public colleges could jobs here after graduation. Ran by state for practical teaching and sopport local state agriculture. Funded by taxes and at mercy universities and keep farmers happy by providing short-term solutions (Q&A centre local farmers) BUT meant that little research freedom. In 1890s and after, William Henry of Wisconsin and Eugene Davenport amongst other ask for government funds for specific research by persuading them of the importance of basic research, persuading good people to come in because less time spent teaching than at university, forming alliances with businessmen+politicians and finding mid-way research such as Mendelian genetics and running short courses for farmers to show importance. Partially as results 1880's wheatcrisis. Professionalisation has benefits economy+agriculture+scientists
On Cape Cod, example of new biological institutes and laboratories
Russia's largest and best-equipped laboratory, research into function organs including digestive system by surgically altering dogs. Justified and funded because potential medical understanding. Special organisation of research and adaptation to audiences
-Coined by the historian Lavine
-Discoveries of X-Rays and radioactivity related since both involved emission of radiation BUT x-rays continued to be broadly used and researched whilst material for radioactivity was too rare so only researched in a couple of centres such as in Paris by Marie Curie who won Nobel Prize in 1903 -->first time big in the news --> both very promising in good AND bad ways (medicine/new energy vs. destroying --> radium watch dials vs. radium girls 1938 BUT also positive side destroying cancer etc) SO dialogue damage/healing and fear/hope from beginning
Experimental biology takes over from observational biology in Cambridge although continue alongside each other, for instance Michael Forster teaching physiology
In Paris, organised by the French Physical Society. Opening speech by physicist Alfred Cornu, who says that pure science is always profitable to humanity and that it is more important than competition between nations. Although clearly patriotic displays in same building etc., but compare to later!
Experiment done in 1866 but picked up then since Mendel had a special law for hybrids but these biologists wanted GENERAL law --> typical for this time when biologists make very general claims from looking at very specific species. This also results of that by '30s people specialise whole career on one organism BUT also still those wanting breadth of course. Also rhetorical importance of experiment although mainly still analysis in reality
New form public support --> philanthropic funding by people with wealth to redeem their reputations and create a root for future and fame
National Life from the Standpoint of Science --> argues that population should be homogenised so have common interest etc --> in wake depression etc.etc.
Eugenics Laboratory as part of UCL led by Karl Pearson --> statistics to correct+extend Galton
Use data to classify and select
Intelligence test for schoolchildren developed in France, later taken into the US where Lewis Terman, Henry Goddard and others apply to immigrants and later on committees suggest to apply to soldier recruitment since not know them BUT using on new audience makes it shift emphasis to detect highly intelligent rather than feeble-minded. Post-war popularisation testing for many different things
Annus mirabilis papers, 4 articles said to radically change physics BUT narrative overstated since already ideas out there AND was already part of physics community. Worked in patent office on patens coordination clocks in electrical network so problem simultaneity time well-known to him and he gave new foundations to not new ideas by combining current ideas on electromagnetism and thermodynamics. Already read Poincare who says no absolute time and who looks at simultaneity. Product modernity, need for telegraphs, trains etc and status symbol military etc BUT Einstein takes out master clock. Audiences
Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality after other works about dreams etc --> later on expanded by many others in psychoanalytic movement ESPECIALLY after WWI when shell shock etc AND break-down pre-war values etc so instinct becomes appropriate Freud becomes celebrity
- Psychoanalytic movement helped by market therapies
- Adding sex to Darwinism
Mostly middle-class professionals and many women, incl. H.G. Wells, Keynes, Churchill, Marie Stopes etc. BUT never more than 800 members and not very succesful: no decrease birthrate lower classes, report for feeble-minded incl. voluntary sterilisation AND mental deficieny act but not much new
Wrote The Interpretation of Radium based on lectures given --> talks about possibilities if manage to control the production of energy --> compares to fire and says might be able to create changes as radical as fire
Government body UK but made decisions funding independently of the government
Writes The World Set Free in which he, inspired by Soddy, explores the possibilities of an 'atomic bomb' --> not remarkable anticipation BUT instead creating a cultural environment in which bombs could be possble
In US, run by Edison and dominated by commercial investors. Antisubmarine research BUT also NAtional Research Council organised by the National Academy of Sciences utilising physicists and mathematicians and using info UK+France
Scientists provide expertise but are NOT a source of values
Collectivism important in soviet agriculture BEFORE Frenkel developed his collective understanding of atoms --> use collectivism as a metaphor going from the social to the physical --> valance electrons becomes free of particular atoms and can glide to the other AND ions can exchange
places with a hole moving through the solid
- Other Soviet example is Mach (use for creativity)
Psychologist at Cambridge rejecting use statistics and mathematics and embracing mental states and other less quantifiable phenomena --> Still succesful!
Schizophrenia, deafness --> courts of genetic health, more than 375,000 sterilized
Anticipated possibility neutron induced chain reactions (unlike Fermi who didn't enough inspiration) --> took out a patent in 1936 assigned to British Admiraly for secrecy --> persuades Roosevelt via Einstein to be warned that Germany might be making a bomb --> helps stimulate US project
- Szilard often refers to H.G. Wells books in talking about the potential of bombs!
- Atomic bombs had to be naturally but also culturally+ technically possible --> all come together at some point!!
In-vitro fertilisation of rabbit eggs --> in newspapers depicted as Bokanovsky, the cloning scientist in Brave New World BUT he also received public critique which prevented him from staying at Harvard --> Public profile thus not always good for people!
Achived chrystallisation of tobacco mosaic virus at Rockefeller institute as well at same time Carrel's glass heart BUT he didn't receive media attention (wins nobel prize in 1942 though)
Kill those who are 'incurably sick' at extermination camps -->
US proposal to the UN for an international atomic regulatory body and elimination of atomic weapons BUT Soviet Union not up for this because UN was mainly US and its allies and could thus not be trusted --> arms race but soviet nuclear weapons by 1949 --> more global political instability incl. Civil War in China and the Korean War which all added to cold war tensions
Physicists working at Berkeley had sign an oath saying there were not members of the communist party. Robert Oppenheimer was charged related to past associations with communists and also lost his security clearance because of it in 1954
Eisenhower speech at the UN --> idea provide access nuclear technologies without having other countries become atomic powers themselves (ie stockpile fissionable material etc.)
--> using science and technology as political tool (remnant from wars use of science as tool? --> in space race but also in collaboration European institutions etc)
- NOn-military atomic development BUT still part of military strategy --> better image US abroad, distract Russians from own project, gather technical/scientific information through 'open' exchange
American drop hydrogen bomb on remote pacific atoll BUT fallout effects people on nearby island as well as Japanese fishers on the Lucky Dragon --> diplomatic tensions and resulting mediastorm --> criticism need for nuclear weapons
- Additionally around the same time also public disagreement AEC and geneticists about whether radiation causes a risk for public health
BUT critique not taken seriously really and even scrutinized and most scientists enjoyed extra funding etc. and power to advise government through AEC etc.
Also international conferences etc.
Women activists concerned about Strontium-90 in 1956 BUT only undertook action when Committee for Nuclear Information was formed in St Louis Washington --> showed that there was strontium-90 in milk --> campaigns to stop nuclear testing due to health concerns
Science movement only part of a larger movement of anti-war protests, civil rights movement (including feminists) and general unrest after the assassination of Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King
Project from government to demonstrate peaceful uses atom at home and abroad --> use in infrastructure projects and clearing projects
Alongside E F Schumacher, thought that science and technology could be a force for social good (as opposed to for instance the Science Action Coordination Committee who were very skeptical about technology in American society in general). Also includes Whole Earth Catalogs
Most famous protests movement in the '70s against individual scientists and institutions, especially MIT for it's military involvement. Gave out Dr Strangelove awards to Edward Teller and Glenn Seaborg for helping to commit heinous crimes. However they, as well as the Jason scientists, kept claiming that they were producing --> NOT all scientists against what doing AND movement includes scientists, politicians, students etc
Universities filed for a patent on the method of transferring plasmid DNA from one bacteria to the other --> example of commercialisation of biotech and science more in general (also seen in rise biotech companies)
President --> cut on a lot of research etc --> part of the reason for increased industrialisation in 80s as precentage government funding GDP goes down and industrialistion up --> now even more private funding than governmental