napoleon's forces divided - but saved by reinforcements and claimed victory.
Britain keen for peace after 9 years of war. france agreed to independence of naples, portugal. egypt taken from britain and returned to Ottoman Empire. propaganda victory. hadnt solved conflict long-term = just breathing space.
peace had broken down. french army of 15,000 - napoleon had invasion plans but they didnt surface. (british navy kept guard of channel) fleet remained waiting for a year - damaging to napoleon's army.
Villeneuve got Franco-Spanish fleet ready to get British ships at the channel - but attacked by British under Nelson. (napoleon had abandoned invasion anyway)
napoleon string of successes - oct 1805 forced austrian surrender, dec 1805 defeated austrio-russian army. austria forced to accept Treaty of Pressburg and territorial reorganisation of Germany in 1806 (destroyed h.r.e.)
one week campaign - battles of jena-auerstadt. marched in triumph to berlin
marched through poland to attack russia
russia and france = allies. russia agree to creation of the Duchy of Warsaw and accepted Napoleon's European terrotorial arrangements. Russia now powerless; pays reperations, limits army to 43,000.
new titles. education. censorship/propaganda. religious change. legal change. administrative change. taxation/economy.
by 1804 only 4 remained. n regarded freedom of the press as dangerous so needed to reduce number of newspapers. no papers could discuss controversial subjects - all reports controlled by napoleon.
catholic worship freely available (under police regulation) church accepted revolution changes - promised not to try recover church lands. clergy = appointed + paid by gov, oath of loyalty. (french army in control of italy at the time)
new courts set up - military courts for armed rebels as well. courts consisted of army officers and magistrates - no jury - defendants had no right to appeal against judgements.
reward loyal people - military service and civilians - no financial reward but high prestige
education only for upper classes (no women) - lycées were prestigious secondary schools for military training. schools taught: history, maths, french, science, geog.
emphasised state control over the clergy and its actions. confirmed concordat, religious toleration of jews and prots.
assignats had made people scared of paper money - this contributed to education. new coinage based on silver franc. helped provide more stable currency.
based on roman law (used before revolution, illiberal). abolished fuedalism, gave civil rights, reinforced partage. emphasis on male rights. slavery allowed in french colonies, workmen given livret (work permit/employment record).
financial rewards for old members of the senate. very few senators ever spoke against napoleon.
for outstanding generals. from 1808 became great heirarchy. 1808-1814 around 3500 titles granted. meant that the Imperial Nobility NEEDED nap's empire for their position, income and land.
catechism = statement of belief. standardised church catechisms and made new ones to be taught in all schools.
1806 code on civil procedure, 1807 commercial code, 1808 code on criminal procedure, 1810 penal code. hard labour, loss of hands, branding = all acceptable punishments. step backwards from revolution.
propaganda had been showing napoleon like a god - men were told to ignore the will of god. during war tensions between nap and pope reached lowest point - napoleon imprisoned pope and annexed papal states to new kingdom of italy.
founded to co-ordinate the various schools: appointed teachers, standardised lessons, inspections, oath of loyalty.
EDUCATION UNDER N: restrictive, means of enforcing loyalty/control.
one of many statues showing heroic napoleon. unlike publishers etc, books, plays and the arts were encouraged for propaganda purposes rather than restricted.
replaced Fouché. police responsible for national security; spying, censorship, prisons, food prices. branches: The Sûreté (food prices, rumours, army deserters), The Gendarmes (everyday law - 1810 19,000 membs), The Secret Police (independent - collected specific info for nap)
publishers needed a licence, booksellers controlled (selling unsuitable material punishable by death), some authors and playwrights forced to emigrate, theatres under licence/closed.
after 1806 tax started rising again due to increased military expenditure. inflation, rising unemployment, collapse of banks/businesses.
new system made - imprisonment without trial (just like lettres de cachet) - step back to ancien regime (but by 1814 only 640 prisoners) BUT number of prisoners tripled over 1800-1814 - 16,000.
reaction against the revolution - not really royalist/pro-ancien regime. it was those who had been prosecuted against those who did well out of revolution.
appointed during the offensive against austrians. married josephine de beauharnais at same time.
directors wanted to change electoral system - needed powerful general's support (nap) - nap gets control of paris - council of 500 napoleon attempted assassination + fighting
result of 19 brumaire - lucien orders soldiers to calm council of 500. councils forced to abolish directory + new gov created. napoleon's coup had worked but only just. (lucky for him = no trouble from paris, army remained loyal)
jan 1800 offered amnesties to those who laid down their arms. dec 1800 - bombing attempt - napoleon used it to arrested jacobin leaders. got brune to crush royalist rebellions.
(referendum) to show support for new const. 3 mil in favour/1500 not in favour. yet probs alot wasnt recorded and many didnt vote at all.
pope accepted loss of church lands and promised social/economic stability. (had now controlled moderate libs through censorship and changing constitution AND got beins nationaux AND property owners AND NOW church)
nap needed to win over the biens nationaux. gave them more political influence. also promised them not to restore émigré/church lands.
duc d'enghien (bourbon) accused and shot on little evidence - scare led to napoleon being made Emporer of the french w/ hereditary title. (approved by pleb)
now effective dictator
prices had been forced up due to war - convention trying to pay for war by printing more assignats. 1792 harvest had been good - but farmers unwilling to sell grain for worthless paper money. bread again in short supply.
took on more then it could cope with. defeated by austria in march 1793. weakened girondins position in convention - french now on the defensive rather than the attack.
one of the emerency measures made in may. control over ministers to co-ordinate war during crisis. still under control of convention - but soon became powerful instrument of government. undermined principles of revolution due to strict control.
beginning of dechristianisation. nov 1793 notre damn becomes temple of reason. 1794 attack on churches later on - destroy all religious symbols etc
jacobins had fought for this.
accepted by convention. jacobins now dominating politics.
forced conscription for every man between 18-25. decreed by convention - carnot leader (jacobin). increased french army to 500,000. even women and children - made uniforms etc.
anyone a danger to the republic - royalists/catholics/hoarders/evading state laws - arrested, imprisoned without trial. revolutionary tribunals. TERROR NOW ORGANISED - DELIBERATE POLICY OF GOVERNMENT.
replaces consituent assembly dissolved in previous month.
french declare war on austria - flee at sight of enemy.
austro-prussian army commander protecting king. threatening the people of france and national guard. turned even more frenchmen against king. revolution radicalising.
royalist sympathisers couldnt vote. jacobins and republicans elected for paris. robespierre leader - supported by jacobins - supported by sans culottes. new name; montagnards.
same day convention opened - brought an end to september massacres. removed threat to paris. justified revolution.
sans culottes, lead by danton, massacre over 1000 royalist prisoners. girondins outraged - turn away from jacobins and sans culottes.
replaced christian calendar. first day - proclamation of the republic (instead of birth of christ).
victory for montagnards + sans culottes. montagnards can now dominate convention. marks end of 2nd phase of revolution.
Louis XVI forced to as in debt. 1st and 2nd estates still refusing to pay tax.
3rd estate establishing a united front.
shows power of new national guard. letting loose political prisoners (but not really). stealing weapons. royal troops stood by - some even joined. after this king wears revolutionary cockade in his hat.
fuedal system abolished. ancien regime ended. peasants happy. tithes, special priveleges, purchase of office abolished.
freedom of expression etc and tax reforms. break from ancien regime. showed importance of need for elected assembly to show 'general will' of the people.
peasant women and national guard. provoked by marie bread hoarding rumours (+ bread prices + food shortages) march to versailles. louis forced to approve declaration, august decrees - 3rd estate sieze control of towns.
either trying to get foreign protection and renogotiate the new consitution w/ backup...or get austrian army and go to war with his own people. people see him as traitor. radicalises ideas.
end of first phase of revolution.
france deprived of many of its colonies. heavy war debt. treaty of paris = england and france tension. french navy crippled.
at first charming. daughter of holy roman emporer - suspicion.
plantation production and profit plummeted. sugar shortages.
in the capital. caused by poor harvests and shortages of sugar (result of slave revolt)