French Revolution 1778-1830 (Copy)

Development of napoleonic empire 1804-1811

success over Austria

1800

napoleon's forces divided - but saved by reinforcements and claimed victory.

victory over Bavaria

December 1800

Peace of Amiens

march 1802

Britain keen for peace after 9 years of war. france agreed to independence of naples, portugal. egypt taken from britain and returned to Ottoman Empire. propaganda victory. hadnt solved conflict long-term = just breathing space.

British-French peace broken

1804

peace had broken down. french army of 15,000 - napoleon had invasion plans but they didnt surface. (british navy kept guard of channel) fleet remained waiting for a year - damaging to napoleon's army.

Battle of Trafalgar

1805

Villeneuve got Franco-Spanish fleet ready to get British ships at the channel - but attacked by British under Nelson. (napoleon had abandoned invasion anyway)

Third Coalition Wars

1805 - 1808

napoleon string of successes - oct 1805 forced austrian surrender, dec 1805 defeated austrio-russian army. austria forced to accept Treaty of Pressburg and territorial reorganisation of Germany in 1806 (destroyed h.r.e.)

victory over Prussia

october 1806

one week campaign - battles of jena-auerstadt. marched in triumph to berlin

Battle of Eylau

february 1807

marched through poland to attack russia

Peace of Tilsit

july 1807

russia and france = allies. russia agree to creation of the Duchy of Warsaw and accepted Napoleon's European terrotorial arrangements. Russia now powerless; pays reperations, limits army to 43,000.

changes napoleon made to france

new titles. education. censorship/propaganda. religious change. legal change. administrative change. taxation/economy.

cut number of Parisian Journals

1800 - 1804

by 1804 only 4 remained. n regarded freedom of the press as dangerous so needed to reduce number of newspapers. no papers could discuss controversial subjects - all reports controlled by napoleon.

pope recognised as head of the catholic church

1801

catholic worship freely available (under police regulation) church accepted revolution changes - promised not to try recover church lands. clergy = appointed + paid by gov, oath of loyalty. (french army in control of italy at the time)

special tribunals for political crimes

1801

new courts set up - military courts for armed rebels as well. courts consisted of army officers and magistrates - no jury - defendants had no right to appeal against judgements.

legion of honour

1802

reward loyal people - military service and civilians - no financial reward but high prestige

lycées

1802

education only for upper classes (no women) - lycées were prestigious secondary schools for military training. schools taught: history, maths, french, science, geog.

Organic Articles

april 1802

emphasised state control over the clergy and its actions. confirmed concordat, religious toleration of jews and prots.

New Metal Coinage

1803

assignats had made people scared of paper money - this contributed to education. new coinage based on silver franc. helped provide more stable currency.

Code Napoléon

1804

based on roman law (used before revolution, illiberal). abolished fuedalism, gave civil rights, reinforced partage. emphasis on male rights. slavery allowed in french colonies, workmen given livret (work permit/employment record).

sénatoreries

1804

financial rewards for old members of the senate. very few senators ever spoke against napoleon.

new titles for Imperial Court

1804 - 1808

for outstanding generals. from 1808 became great heirarchy. 1808-1814 around 3500 titles granted. meant that the Imperial Nobility NEEDED nap's empire for their position, income and land.

new catechisms

1806

catechism = statement of belief. standardised church catechisms and made new ones to be taught in all schools.

new codes

1806 - 1810

1806 code on civil procedure, 1807 commercial code, 1808 code on criminal procedure, 1810 penal code. hard labour, loss of hands, branding = all acceptable punishments. step backwards from revolution.

pope imprisoned

1808

propaganda had been showing napoleon like a god - men were told to ignore the will of god. during war tensions between nap and pope reached lowest point - napoleon imprisoned pope and annexed papal states to new kingdom of italy.

Imperial University

1808

founded to co-ordinate the various schools: appointed teachers, standardised lessons, inspections, oath of loyalty.
EDUCATION UNDER N: restrictive, means of enforcing loyalty/control.

Arc de Triomphe

1809

one of many statues showing heroic napoleon. unlike publishers etc, books, plays and the arts were encouraged for propaganda purposes rather than restricted.

Savary - new Minister of Police

1810

replaced Fouché. police responsible for national security; spying, censorship, prisons, food prices. branches: The Sûreté (food prices, rumours, army deserters), The Gendarmes (everyday law - 1810 19,000 membs), The Secret Police (independent - collected specific info for nap)

regular censoring system introduced

1810

publishers needed a licence, booksellers controlled (selling unsuitable material punishable by death), some authors and playwrights forced to emigrate, theatres under licence/closed.

France in severe debt AGAIN

1810

after 1806 tax started rising again due to increased military expenditure. inflation, rising unemployment, collapse of banks/businesses.

arbitrary imprisonment

1810

new system made - imprisonment without trial (just like lettres de cachet) - step back to ancien regime (but by 1814 only 640 prisoners) BUT number of prisoners tripled over 1800-1814 - 16,000.

4th phase of the revolution

white terror

may 1795 - june 1795

reaction against the revolution - not really royalist/pro-ancien regime. it was those who had been prosecuted against those who did well out of revolution.

napoleon has command over french army in italy

feb 1796

appointed during the offensive against austrians. married josephine de beauharnais at same time.

elections - royalist majority

may 1797

revolt of brumaire

may 1799

directors wanted to change electoral system - needed powerful general's support (nap) - nap gets control of paris - council of 500 napoleon attempted assassination + fighting

end of directorate

june 1799

result of 19 brumaire - lucien orders soldiers to calm council of 500. councils forced to abolish directory + new gov created. napoleon's coup had worked but only just. (lucky for him = no trouble from paris, army remained loyal)

repression and reform to establish nap's position

1800 - 1804

jan 1800 offered amnesties to those who laid down their arms. dec 1800 - bombing attempt - napoleon used it to arrested jacobin leaders. got brune to crush royalist rebellions.

plebiscite

feb 1800

(referendum) to show support for new const. 3 mil in favour/1500 not in favour. yet probs alot wasnt recorded and many didnt vote at all.

Concordat with church

1801

pope accepted loss of church lands and promised social/economic stability. (had now controlled moderate libs through censorship and changing constitution AND got beins nationaux AND property owners AND NOW church)

right to vote dependent on taxation

1802

nap needed to win over the biens nationaux. gave them more political influence. also promised them not to restore émigré/church lands.

asassination scare

1804

duc d'enghien (bourbon) accused and shot on little evidence - scare led to napoleon being made Emporer of the french w/ hereditary title. (approved by pleb)

napoleon = EMPORER

2 december 1804

Napoleon 'First Consul'

nov 1999

now effective dictator

3rd phase of the revolution

food riots

february 1793

prices had been forced up due to war - convention trying to pay for war by printing more assignats. 1792 harvest had been good - but farmers unwilling to sell grain for worthless paper money. bread again in short supply.

france declares war on britain and holland

february 1793

took on more then it could cope with. defeated by austria in march 1793. weakened girondins position in convention - french now on the defensive rather than the attack.

committee of public safety

april 1793

one of the emerency measures made in may. control over ministers to co-ordinate war during crisis. still under control of convention - but soon became powerful instrument of government. undermined principles of revolution due to strict control.

commune stops paying clerical salaries

may 1793

beginning of dechristianisation. nov 1793 notre damn becomes temple of reason. 1794 attack on churches later on - destroy all religious symbols etc

law of maximum - bread

may 1793

jacobins had fought for this.

jacobin constitution

june 1793

accepted by convention. jacobins now dominating politics.

levée en masse

august 1793

forced conscription for every man between 18-25. decreed by convention - carnot leader (jacobin). increased french army to 500,000. even women and children - made uniforms etc.

'law of suspects' - beginning of terror

17 september 1793

anyone a danger to the republic - royalists/catholics/hoarders/evading state laws - arrested, imprisoned without trial. revolutionary tribunals. TERROR NOW ORGANISED - DELIBERATE POLICY OF GOVERNMENT.

marie-antoinette executed

14 october 1793

republican calendar

23 oct 1793

2nd phase of the revolution

legislative assembly

October 1789

replaces consituent assembly dissolved in previous month.

food riots

January 1791 - March 1791

embarrassing 'war' with Austria

April 1792

french declare war on austria - flee at sight of enemy.

Brunswick Manifesto

July 1792

austro-prussian army commander protecting king. threatening the people of france and national guard. turned even more frenchmen against king. revolution radicalising.

new convention

September 1792

royalist sympathisers couldnt vote. jacobins and republicans elected for paris. robespierre leader - supported by jacobins - supported by sans culottes. new name; montagnards.

french defeat prussia at valmy

September 1792

same day convention opened - brought an end to september massacres. removed threat to paris. justified revolution.

the september massacres

September 1792

sans culottes, lead by danton, massacre over 1000 royalist prisoners. girondins outraged - turn away from jacobins and sans culottes.

new republican calendar

21 September 1792

replaced christian calendar. first day - proclamation of the republic (instead of birth of christ).

King Louis XVI Executed

January 1793

victory for montagnards + sans culottes. montagnards can now dominate convention. marks end of 2nd phase of revolution.

1st phase of the revolution

estates general

February 1789

Louis XVI forced to as in debt. 1st and 2nd estates still refusing to pay tax.

Tennis Court Oath

May 1789

3rd estate establishing a united front.

Storming of the Bastille

July 1789

shows power of new national guard. letting loose political prisoners (but not really). stealing weapons. royal troops stood by - some even joined. after this king wears revolutionary cockade in his hat.

the august decrees

August 1789

fuedal system abolished. ancien regime ended. peasants happy. tithes, special priveleges, purchase of office abolished.

Declaration of rights of man and citizen

August 1789

freedom of expression etc and tax reforms. break from ancien regime. showed importance of need for elected assembly to show 'general will' of the people.

october days

October 1789

peasant women and national guard. provoked by marie bread hoarding rumours (+ bread prices + food shortages) march to versailles. louis forced to approve declaration, august decrees - 3rd estate sieze control of towns.

flight to varennes

June 1791

either trying to get foreign protection and renogotiate the new consitution w/ backup...or get austrian army and go to war with his own people. people see him as traitor. radicalises ideas.

king accepts consitution

September 1791

end of first phase of revolution.

background - before and general

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

france deprived of many of its colonies. heavy war debt. treaty of paris = england and france tension. french navy crippled.

Louis XVI (future) marriage to Marie-Antoinette

1770

at first charming. daughter of holy roman emporer - suspicion.

poor harvests

1788 - 1791

peasants angry.

slave revolt

1791

plantation production and profit plummeted. sugar shortages.

food riots

1792

in the capital. caused by poor harvests and shortages of sugar (result of slave revolt)

Main