English Revolution

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Short Parlament

13 April 1640

King Charles I summons the Short Parliament, bringing his eleven-year Personal Rule to an end.

Short Parlament Dissolves

5 May 1640

The King dissolves the Short Parliament when MPs refuse to grant him subsidies for war against Scotland.

Battle of Newburn

28 August 1640

The Scots defeat the English army at the battle of Newburn.

End of Bishop`s wars

25 October 1640

The Treaty of Ripon ends the Bishops' Wars.

Long Parlament

3 November 1640

Desperately short of money, King Charles summons the Long Parliament.

The Earl Of Strafford

11 November 1640

The Earl of Strafford impeached by Parliament.

Illegal Ship Money

7 December 1640

The House of Commons declares ship-money to be an illegal tax.

The Triennial Act passed

16 Feb 1641

The Triennial Act passed, guaranteeing that Parliament will be called at least once every three years.

Protestation Oath

3 May 1641

The House of Commons draws up the Protestation Oath against popery.

"First Army Plot"

5 May 1641

John Pym reveals details of the "First Army Plot": an alleged conspiracy by Royalist officers to coerce Parliament.

Execution of the Earl of Strafford.

12 May 1641

Parlament Ebolishes The Cousrts

5 July 1641

Parliament abolishes the courts of High Commission and Star Chamber; the Council of Wales and the North abolished; powers of the Privy Council suppressed.

House Of Communs Passes the resolution of destruction

1 Sep 1641

The House of Commons passes a resolution for the destruction of altar rails, crucifixes and other 'innovations' introduced under the Laudian reforms.

Irish Uprising

23 Oct 1641

News of the Irish Uprising reaches London.

The Grand Remonstrance

1 Dec 1641

The Grand Remonstrance presented to King Charles at Hampton Court.

Riots at Westminster

27 Dec 1641 - 9 Jan 1642

Fail Attempt to arrest Five MP

Jan 1642

The King fails in his attempt to arrest the Five Members regarded as his leading opponents in Parliament.

King Leaves London

10 Jan 1642

Popular support for Parliament forces the King and royal family to leave London.

King Refuses to Surrender

12 Feb 1642

The King refuses to surrender control of the militia to Parliament.

Militia Ordinance

5 Mar 1642

Parliament passes the Militia Ordinance, despite the King's objections.

The Nineteen Propositions

1 Jun 1642

The Nineteen Propositions passed by Parliament, requiring the King to give up control of the militia and the right to appoint ministers.

Commissions of Array

6 jun 1642

The King issues the first Commissions of Array.

The King rejects the Nineteen Propositions.

18 Jun 1642

Committee of Safety

6 Jul 1642

Parliament appoints the Committee of Safety.

The first military action of the English Civil War

10 Jul 1642

The first military action of the English Civil War takes place when a Royalist raiding party approaches Hull to burn down buildings outside the town walls, but is driven away by gunfire from the defenders

Parliament resolves to raise an army.

12 Jul 1642

Parliament resolves to raise an army. The Earl of Essex commissioned Captain-General.

The royal standard at Nottingham Castle.

22 Aug 1642

King Charles raises the royal standard at Nottingham Castle. King and Parliament now at war.

The Earl of Essex marches

9 Sep 1642

The Earl of Essex marches from London against the King.

Action at Powick Bridge

23 Sep 1642

Action at Powick Bridge near Worcester: Prince Rupert routs Essex's advance guard.

Battle of Edgehill

23 Oct 1642

The Earl of Essex fails to prevent the Royalists advancing on London.

The King's army withdraws to Oxford

29 Nov 1642

The King's army withdraws to Oxford which remains the Royalist capital for the rest of the war.

Battle of Braddock Down

19 Jan 1643

Battle of Braddock Down: Sir Ralph Hopton defeats Colonel Ruthven and secures Cornwall for the King.

Treaty negotiations open at Oxford.

1 Feb 1643

Confiscation of Royalist estates

27 Mar 1643

Parliament issues it first ordinance for sequestration

Confiscation of Royalist estates

27 Mar 1643

Parliament issues it first ordinance for sequestration

Oxford treaty negotiations break down.

14 Apr 1643

Battle of Adwalton Moor

30 Jun 1643

The Earl of Newcastle defeats Lord Fairfax to secure most of Yorkshire for the King.

The Westminster Assembly meets

1 Jul 1643

The Westminster Assembly meets to discuss reform of the Anglican church.

Battle of Roundway Down

13 Jul 1643

Battle of Roundway Down: Sir William Waller's Western Association army destroyed

The King's army besieges Gloucester.

10 Aug 1643

The Marquis of Ormond signs

14 Sep 1643

The Marquis of Ormond signs a one-year cease-fire with the Irish Confederates, allowing troops stationed in Ireland to return to England and fight for the King.

First Battle of Newbury

20 Sep 1643

the Earl of Essex fights his way back to London.

The signing of the Solemn League and Covenant

25 Sep 1643

The signing of the Solemn League and Covenant secures a military alliance between the English Parliament and the Scottish Covenanters.

Death of John Pym.

8 Dec 1643

The Scottish invasion

19 Jan 1644

the Army of the Covenant crosses the River Tweed and marches into England.

King Charles formally opens the Oxford Parliament.

22 Jan 1644

The trial of Archbishop Laud opens in London.

12 Mar 1644

Battle of Cheriton

29 Mar 1644

Sir William Waller defeats Lord Forth and Lord Hopton at the battle of Cheriton; Parliament's first decisive victory of the war.

Battle Marstoon Moor

2 Jul 1644

The Committee for Both Kingdoms formed to co-ordinate the Parliamentarian and Scottish armies.

The Marquis of Montrose raises his standard in Scotland.

30 Aug 1644

Battle of Montgomery

18 Sep 1644

Parliamentarians gain control of central Wales.

Second battle of Newbury

27 Oct 1644

Parliamentarian commanders bickering.

Battle of Naseby

14 Jun 1645

the New Model Army inflicts a crushing defeat on the King's army.

Battle of Langport

10 Jul 1645

the New Model Army advances into the West and defeats Lord Goring

Battle of Kilsyth

15 Aug 1645

the Marquis of Montrose defeats the Covenanters to briefly gain control of Scotland.

Battle of Philiphaugh

13 Sep 1645

defeat of the Marquis of Montrose.

Battle of Torrington

16 Feb 1646

Sir Thomas Fairfax defeats Lord Hopton and the western Royalist army.

the last Royalist army defeated

21 Mar 1646

the last Royalist army defeated by Sir William Brereton at Stow-on-the-Wold.

The New Model Army besieges Oxford.

3 May 1646

King Charles surrenders to the Covenanter army at Newark.

5 May 1646

Surrender of Oxford.

24 Jun 1646