England 1539- 1553

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the act of the six articles

1539

The six articles: reasserted the royal supremacy- conservatives accepted this reform
conform to transubstantiation, if refused then the punishment would be burning.
enforced communion of both kinds (clergy only)
outlawed clerical marriage

Gardener- was temporally executed from the council, however the earl of Surrey and sir of John Russel- were able to promote there faction; by using Cromwell and Cranmer,making them isolated.
the conservative faction were happy that Henry was going to pass an act of uniformity of religion an end to the religious experimentation , the act was steered through the house of Lords driven by through by Norfolk, Henry returning to a more catholic doctrine.
Cromwell was made chairman of the committee.

Cromwell

1539

Cromwell appeared to regain favour- Cromwell was appointed by Henry as Earl of Essex, however with this apparent regain of favour with the king the plots against Cromwell continued.

Wife number 4

January 1540 - July 1540

Henry marries Anne of Cleaves, Cromwell arranged this marriage as an alliance with the Duke of Cleaves (the Brother of Anne of Cleaves) who was a Protestant and could offer a form of protection for Henry against the mounting threat of the Spanish and the French. The marriage failed Henry hated Anne and refused to consummate the marriage: Henry felt that Cromwell had tricked him into this marriage and this would lead to Cromwell's downfall. By mid 1540 the marriage was no longer need the peace treaty between Spain and France was over. Norfolk began the Valois Conflict, negations with French, for Henry to gain an accordance with Francis Cromwell had to be removed from the offices, and to do this Norfolk used Catharine Howard.

The fall of Cromwell

July 1540

execution of Cromwell and the marriage to Catherine Howard. While being held prisoner in the tower he was finalising Henry's divorce to Anne, so that he could marry Anne and this is what he wanted to do. The failed marriage to Anne was Cromwell's fault, but Norfolk gave Henry want he wanted. By doing this Norfolk convinced Henry that Cromwell was a heretic and supported sacumentrions, in France ; and association with reformist.... this was a victory conservatives faction over reformist, the believed that now that the king's chief minster was gone and Catherine could influence the king. The reformists had no leader after the death of Cromwell.

the struggle for power

july 1540

At this time it was that Henry was not going to make to Edward becoming an adult so he would mean that he would come to the throne as a minor, and that means that there is the ability for more control over a minor than an adult, so the faction that is in power during the last years of Henry's reign will be in power for Edwards reign. The race was on between the conservatives and the reformists.

The fall and execution of Catharine Howard

February 1542

Catharine Howard was no Anne she was not politically able like Anne and did not have control over Henry the way Anne did. She also had very little interest in Henry it has been suggested that he was more than twice her age, he was obese and at this point he was smelly , not the man he use to be. Howard flirted with young men more of her own age, this would become her undoing. The Reformist began to gather evidence against her, Cranmer had to present Henry with the evidence against her, Henry was furious, has the investigation progressed he felt that he had been tricked by Norfolk, Henry now realised that he had been made to look like a fool, by choosing to get rid of Cromwell his most loyal and best servant. In an attempt to save himself Norfolk disowned Catharine and declared to be outraged by her behaviour; however his family did suffer his step-mother Agnes Duchess of Norfolk and Lord William Howard were imprisoned and the property was seized. Norfolk escaped punishment- removed himself and his sons from court- this really weakened the conservative party.

plot against Cranmer

1543

The plot against Cranmer can be suggested as backlash because the marriage to Catherine Parr. The conservative party wanted to remove Cranmer as arch bishop and replace him with someone with more conservative views. Gardener told Henry that Cranmer was a heretic and Henry told G to investigate C, also gained consent to arrest C, when G and men went to go and arrest C at a council meeting C presented a ring to G which Henry had given him which showed that he had the full support of Henry, G was heavily reprimanded for his actions.

wife number five

1543

the marriage to Catherine Parr was a win for the reformist as she was a protestant, and Henry allowed his children to be taught by Protestants, meaning Edward was going to be taught the Protestant believes, so would agree more with the reformist faction, so they would gain his support in his reign. Henry chose to marry Parr as she could be a loving and caring wife he just wanted a wife to look after him, than a pretty young wife.

The war with Scotland and France

1543

After the humiliation he experienced with Catherine Howard, Henry wanted to regain his manhood and honour so he tried to engage in foreign policy as he wanted to regain glory and success, he agreed to join Charles on an attack against France and gain land in France, Scotland attacked while in France so Henry also had a war with Scotland, the total cost of this war cost Henry more than two million, this ruined Cromwell's plan to make the Crown finically independent. This war weakened future monarchies.

Christmas

December 1545

Henry emphasised that he wanted an end to this extreme struggle on both sides.

plot against Catharine Parr

1546

After the conservatives failed to remove Cranmer, they stared an attack on Catharine Parr as she was a massive influence over Henry and Edward ( more importantly ), Norfolk saw this threat and got Gardener to alert Henry and offer to gather evidence against her, Henry agreed. However Henry told Catharine of the investigation and she begged for his forgiveness and told him that she would follow his religious ideology, Catharine had Henrys full support. when G's men came to arrest her in her chamber Wrothsey was subjected to a dressing down and kicked out of the queen's chamber and called a nave.

Edward succeeds

1547

Edward comes to the throne at the age of nine.

Henry's death

1547

Henry death was kept a secret for 3 days. while the reformist ensured their power for Edward's reign. By manipulating Henry's will and gathering support for Seymour.

execution of the Earl of Surrey

January 1547

The earl of Surrey was executed for treason, because he was saying/ suggesting that he was the rightful heir to the throne. Henry knew that he was going die and leave his son Edward the throne as a minor, which put the Tudor dynast at risk.

Somerset becomes lord protector

February 1547

Somerset becoming lord protector was his own personal ambition. He called the nobility to the tower of London and announced that he was dead and that he had been made Lord protector of Edward and he was also rewarded with new lands . There was no objection to him becoming Lord protector but that does not mean he did not face opposition, although the conservative party had been suppressed he faced opposition from his own party, he faced opposition in the form of his brother Thomas Seymour, they both fought for Edwards favour. However Somerset had Thomas executed when he went to far when he planed to marry Elizabeth. Somerset isolated himself from the council that Henry had created and used his own household as his council.

Rebellion

June 1549 - August 1549

The western rebellion and Kett's rebellion took place.

Fall of Somerset

September 1549 - October 1549

Somerset attempted to create a new council this was opposed by the earls of Arundel, South Hampton and Warwick. Somerset took Edward into his care and held him at Windsor castle, Edward accused Somerset of holding him captive, Somerset fell out of the Kings favour. Somerset denied all charges, However it would have been treason to contradict the King. Somerset was imprisoned in the tower however was later released and returned to court. However Somerset fell from power this was brought about Northumberland

Northumberland becomes Lord president of the council

February 1550

Like Somerset Northumberland wanted personal power. Northumberland didn't like somerset as he bypassed the council. Northumberland's handling of the rebellion and commander of the army, this gave him strength and power already, so he was able to engineer Somerset's arrest in october.
Northumberland was more inclined to implement Edwards will than Somerset had wanted to do. Northumberland also alined himself with conservative members and then once in power distanced himself from the conservatives once he had gained power then alined himself with Cranmer and the conservatives to win favour with the King. Once in power he also delegated and used the council and used individuals strengths. However Northumberland did fill the council with his supporters to prevent rivalry.

the execution of Somerset

1552

Somerset was executed and Northumberland took over power.

The will and Death of Edward

July 1553

Edward contracted TB and by that summer it was obvious that he was going to die. This put Edward and Northumberland in a difficult position as he was not 18 he could not change Henry's act of succession he was not married and had no children. So Edward named Jane Grey as his next in line as he did not want Mary to become Queen as she was a catholic and she would undo any of the religious reforms that he had made. Lady Jane Grey becoming Queen would benefit Northumberland as his son had just married Lady Jane Grey.
Edwards death was kept a secret and bulied the council and the major of London into agreeing that Lady Jane Grey was Queen of England- there was little support for this. Mary also proclaimed her self Queen and marched to Suffolk for battle with Northumberland, however to never came to this as his troops deserted him, and once he had left London the council declared Mary as queen.

Northumberland was asserted

17 July 1553

Northumberland was arrested for treason.

Northumberland was executed

August 22 1553

Northumberland was arrested for his crimes.