napoleon - support of Austria and Prussia. army of 450,000 (less than half french). begins advance in june with no warning - entered russia, who's army constantly retreated - refused to fight - thus french army drawn deeper into Russia. (stretched supplies). russia adopted scorched earth policy (like spain), nap's tactics not working: limited shelter/food, 60,000 died from disease, some killed by Cossacks, some of starvation/exhaustion. 7 September: Russians defeated at Borodino, 80,000 casualties --> many russian troops escaped. 14 September: French take Moscow (deserted, burnt by scorched earth pol) - russians refuse to negotiate, french army remain in moscow for over a month. October: French retreat - russian winter, Cossacks, floods from River Beresina. Grand Armée now 50,000 by Smolensk. Russians destroy Beresina bridges - french cant escape - by Duchy of Warsaw only 25,000 safe - nap flees to paris.
--> failed because: weather, lack of planning, undisciplined troops, overstretched supplies, not 'caring general' anymore (sent them off with only 4 days rations, inadequate maps, sparse clothes, insufficient meds), russian tactics.