Expanding classical systems of society and culture

The culture diffusion produced a new SYNTHESIS (joining together of the two cultures) or distinctive new societies. method to expand classical civilization: 1. Migration 2. Cultural diffusion 3. Trade

Expansion of society and culture in East and Southeast Asia

Polynesian migrations

1500 BCE - 900 CE

It is one of the greatest migration in history. The POLYNESIANS are a group of linguistically related people and their language group are called AUSTRONESIAN. They are root farmers and the society depends on cheifdom based on lineage. The cheif structured from ceremonial and public architecture to warfare. Polynesians were expert seaman and invented the OUTRIGGER CANOE that can travel arcoss the Pacific Ocean. The Austronesians expanded eastward from MELANESIA to POLYNESIA (澳大利亚附近的岛屿但不包括澳大利亚); South to Madagascar. The migration covered one-third of the globe.

High cheif in Hawaii-- ALI'I
KAPU-- taboo of commers'lives

Yamato Japan

200 BCE - 700 CE

By 3rd century, the YAMATO CLAN seized Kyoti京都. they seemed themselves as descendents of sun-goddess. They established a cheif shrine giving rise to a religion called SHINTO. The chief deity of Shinto was the sun-goddess and the emperor was decended from Shinto. It stressed the worship of ancestors and the beauty of nature. KAMI- the spirit of nature.

Japan had extensive contact with Korea and Korea spread Buddism to Japan. Pro-Buddhist in Japan used the religion to strengthen rules and introduced Chineses political concepts. PRINCE SHOTOKU wrote SEVENTEEN ARTICLE CONSTITUITIONto stress peoper role of government and ethical conduct.Prince Shotoku later sent people to learn Tang Chinese system.

Easter Island

300 CE

Polynesian people settled in Easter Island around 300 CE and they bulit a culture in which large stones called AHU were built. The culture deminished due to war caused by the ecological change.

Sui China

589 CE - 618 CE

Buddism
After the collapse of Han, Buddhism spread to the disordered China in about 200 CE. Indian monks came to China and translated the Buddism concepts. Wei was supporter of Buddism and built many PAGODA(寺院宝塔). The increase using of paper and block printing help to spread the Buddism.

知识点: 隋炀帝开凿大运河(杭州到北京),修补长城,外扩国土; 隋炀帝暴政,迁都洛阳,上任十四年即被杀害
隋朝首都长安,center power在 Wei valley。

Tang China, Golden Age

618 CE - 907 CE

唐太宗建国,开阔国土并发散影响力南到越南,东到阿富汗,北到朝鲜。唐朝中国成为农业大国。
Sinifiction-中国化

印刷术
Turks 与唐朝在751的战争不仅停止了唐朝的扩张,而且从唐朝俘虏那里学到造纸术和印刷术并把这些技术传到了Arab
印刷术发明于600 CE
活字印刷发明于1050 CE

唐朝-- golden age
文人墨客,LI BO(李白= =)
佛教对唐朝影响很大,很多建筑和艺术都与佛教有关
陶瓷 - porcelain,丝绸和茶是三大出口产品
长安是唐朝中心,外来人员皆汇聚在长安。长安亦是贸易中心。
唐朝的科举制度已教育为选官标准,给每个人平等的机会。
Meritocracy-a system of bureaucratic advancement based on education rather than family relations, wealth or power.
Bureau of Censors- kept track of officials at all levels.

佛教的衰败
因为有些皇帝(ex.武则天)对佛教的推崇--消耗很多资源寺院--引来了其他教派的不满。840开始对佛教进行迫害,至今佛教从未像以往一样普遍。

唐朝因为资源衰竭,朝廷管制不力, 自然灾害引来了大暴动从而在907灭亡了

Nara and Heian Japan

700 CE - 1200 CE

Eariler people migrated to Japan from China, Manchuria, Malaysia, and Indonesia, as well as Korea, to settle on the Japanese island. Japan later adopted Chinese writing and developed language from Korean.

After the death of prince Shotoku in Yamato, someone overthrow the government and proclaimed the TAIKA REFORM--to create a political system like China. They set the first true capital at Nara. Chinese culture had great influences on Nara. Unlike China, fedual-style lords and hereditary aristocrats reserved most offical positions and the emporer was considered as divine.

After a monk tried to take the throne, the capital KYOTO (then called HEIAN--日本平安时期). in this period, Japan developed a phonetic system known as KANA (假名)from Chinese characters and gradually stopped the visit to Chinese in order to show cultural independence.When FUJIWARA CLAN ruled Japan, they ended the system of meritocracy (858-1806). The family increase the influence in court by intermarriage. Women's life in court is less conventional than men since they can express freer. The DAIMYO family rose in the period. A new group called SAMURAI 武士 emerged to interfere with conflicts at court. Heian ended to give way to the Kamakura period--rise of fredalism.

Maori culture

800 CE

Maori culture is the culture of the Māori of New Zealand (an Eastern Polynesian people) and forms a distinctive part of New Zealand culture.Polynesians migrated there and settled down. New Zealand was different from Polyesian's hometown and they developed staple crops supplemented with fish. Overpopulation led to war. HAPU- In Māoridom and New Zealand a hapū ("subtribe", or "clan"[1]) functions as "the basic political unit within Māori society"部落.They developed in woodworking and decoration. They believed in rich and complex spiritual world.

Khmer Combodia

802 CE - 1210 CE

Indian culture had great influence on Sotheast Asia. In many places, rulers adopted a god-king (DEVARAJA)pattern of rule. The Thais, Vietnamese, and Burmese were influenced by India. The two indigenous people were the KHMER in Combodia and the SRIVIJAYA on the island of SUMATRA. Srivijaya was a maritime empire, but the empire was stunning blow when a naval from Sothern India captured the king and Indian culture started to flow to there. Sculptures there depicted BODHISATTVAS 菩萨. famous Buddhism mounment--BOROBUDUR 婆罗浮屠

When India culture diffused to Combodia through trade, people tended to adopt Buddhism for its compassion and equality while higher class adopt hinduism for manitaining social order. In 9th century the Khmer King built a new capital temple complex at ANGKOR THOM 吴哥城 which reflected the structure of the world according to Hindu cosmology. Anthor king built ANGKOR WAT 吴哥窟 which replicated the arrangement and style of the temple at ANGKOR THOM in 10th century.Buddism sculptures were added in both site when later the king adopted Buddism.

Song China

960 CE - 1279 CE

宋朝首都在开封, 是手工业中心和贸易中心。 金属制造业在宋朝飞速发展, 政府开始使用纸钱。 政府颁发通俗小册子(PAMPHLET printed in VERNACULAR)教农业技巧. GENTRY士绅--新的教育精英阶级诞生。女人的地为降低,从宋朝开始裹脚这样她们就干不了农活。

纳贡tributary system
宋朝的对外政策不同于唐的向外扩张,宋朝的目的是保全中国原有国土。宋朝采取纳贡式,越离京城远的就纳越少贡,磕少点头,越近越多,但回礼也多,并象征权力越大。

南宋
一次北宋与女真族(Jurchen)的联盟激怒了另一个野蛮国家然后女真族随即背叛中国,开封被侵略。 宋朝重新在杭州定都,并开阔南方海路。当时南宋港口是世界最大,造船技术也是一流, 可载600人和货物。指南针的发明也帮助了宋朝的海上贸易。

Confucian Renaissance
南宋哲学家朱熹提出了NEO-CONFUCIANISM,一种综合了儒教,佛教和道教的思想。这种思想提倡自身完善,支持社会和了解世界。这个思想传入了韩国和日本并造成很大影响

发明
南宋在农业,手工业和交通工具上的发明很多。

The Rise of Islamic Civilization (600 CE- 1200 CE)

In the pre-Islam world, Arab world was full of culture diffusion due to the conflict between Byzantine empire and Sassanid Persia, which blocked merchants way from Europe to Asia,and therefore merchants went from Arab.People were diverse since then as the Babylonians, Assyrians, Hebrew and Arabs--they all speak SEMITIC language. The new religion and culture of Islam reflects a sythesis of Arab lifestyle. 伊斯兰教先后从阿拉伯地区传到印度和南亚。在印度,有些印度教教徒转教因为喜欢伊斯兰教的简单和平等。在南亚,苏门答腊岛(Sumatra)是伊斯兰教的最先落脚点

Bedouin Culture

500 CE

阿拉伯地区在伊斯兰教出现前有很多部落,部落以祖先划分。 Bedouin 部落中的 Umayyad 部落掌管重要的政治,宗教和经济中心(ex. Mecca)。 Bedouin 部落盛产诗并以口传。部落宗教为万物有灵论和多神论。

Life of Muhammad

570 CE - 632 CE

He described vision from the ARCHANGEL GABRIEL (the angle) who develiered the word ALLAH. The revelation he recited became the basis of Islam found in the book QUR'AN.
Muhammad believed in the reserection of the physical body in the afterlife and an evetual Last Judgement.

PILLARS OF FAITH:
1. profession of the creed (only god is Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet)
2. prayer five times a day called by a MUEZZIN, or reciter
3.almsgiving, or ZAKAT
4. fasting during the holy month of RAMADAN
5. a pilgrimage to MECCA (hajj)

Islamic belief
Muslims view Christinity and Jews as part of Islam and they are worshipping the same god. Christinity prophets like Moses, Jesus and Abraham are prophets of Islam. With the last prophet Muhammad, the true religion is revealed.

HADITH and QUR'AN are two books about Muhammad and they formed the ethical basis of Islamic law, which is codified in SHARIA (伊斯兰教教法)

Islam instructed gender equality.
Muslims also should lead a holy life and spread the Islamic faith (JIHAD--护教运动). Jidah is waded by four means-- the heart, the tongue, the hand and the sword.Through Jidah,denfeners of faith assured paradise. The spread of Islam provided a unifying culture elements and language since QUR'AN and HADITH are both written in Arab.

Sufism- a mystic Islamic movement that developed in Banghdad. They taught salvation through fasting, praying, and meditation. This movement spread Islam to Africa, India and Southeast Asia.

伊斯兰教成教的初始很少人信,Umayyad部落更是因为他们害怕伊斯兰教会改过他们原先的宗教从而影响朝圣的利益。穆罕默德所以开始游历,HEGIRA (穆罕默德从麦加逃亡)。 他的教徒开始增多,而且伊斯兰教将阿拉伯地图的人都团结在一起。

穆罕默德死后伊斯兰教以继承者(caliph)的问题开始分派,Sunnis 的人觉得继承者必须为社会认可的人所以推举ABU BAKR, 穆罕默德的好朋友和政治追随者。Shi'ites的人认为及程序要为穆罕默德的亲戚所以推举Ali, 默罕默德的女婿。Sunnis 觉得政治和军事力量是首领的责任,而宗教精神则由学者(Ulema)推敲上帝的话所得. Shi'ites 觉得宗教领袖(Imam)是上帝的使者,因此应为政治领导。后来Sunnis胜过Shi'ites,Shi'ites现今在Persia(伊朗,伊拉克)一带活跃,而Sunnis在剩余的地方活跃。

很多波斯人从Zoroastrism转为穆斯林

Umayyad Caliphate

661 CE - 750 CE

Umayyad 部落逐渐壮大,统一了Bedouin 文化,并一路从北非绕道进攻西欧占领了西班牙,又进攻中亚。他们的进攻传播了伊斯兰教虽然他们没有强迫别人改教。他们迁都DAMASCUS。第一任caliph, MUAWIYA, 建立了一个类似于罗马的政府,鼓励农业的工业的发展。他们还要求民众到清真寺朝拜。 清真寺的建造在这个王朝变得更加辉煌。他们在691的时候在耶路撒冷建造了DOME OF THE ROCK MOSQUE。 王朝的人想建造一个由阿拉伯和穆斯林贵族(emir)统治不是阿拉伯人和穆斯林的社会体系。
女人的地位相比起游牧时有所下降,虽然穆罕默德推崇男女平等。

Abbasid Caliphate

750 CE - 1258 CE

Umayyad 王朝视转教到伊斯兰教的人为二等公民,再者他们的建筑工程和王朝扩张耗资巨大,引发民愤,所以被Abbasid家族灭了并建立了Abbasid Caliphate. 这个王朝视转教公民为平等公民并多了很多波斯人的统治阶级。王朝迁都至Baghdad并建了很多清真寺。王朝很积极的消灭与他们意见不同的团体。Vizier (伊斯兰教国家高官)管理国家。世界商业网络发展迅猛, 王朝的船 dhow能载很多货物。陆地出现很多旅馆(caravanserai)。 银行系统的发明允许人们兑换货币,借钱和写支票 (比欧洲早300年用银行体系)。此王朝为伊斯兰鼎盛时期。
Ibn Sina- published "Canon of Medicine"
Ibn Rushed-studied Aristotle, states religious belief could not be reconciled by philosophy.

Kingdom of Ghana

900 CE - 1100 CE

骆驼的引入带给非洲很大的方便,自此,非洲的货运由骆驼主导。 非洲的主要出口商品为盐,黄金和奴隶。 非洲的黄金对欧洲的货币(monetization)非常重要。欧洲队奴隶的需求量很大因为以前死亡率很高,又或者释放率(manumission)很高。

加纳(Ghana)
加纳国为非洲最富有的王国,由Soninke people建立,坐落在尼日尔河附近。穿过撒哈拉沙漠的商业旅途带来了伊斯兰教。引入伊斯兰教后,国王, 朝廷和穆斯林管理者为最高层, 商人,农民和技工为中层, 奴隶为下层。加纳王国学习伊斯兰教的diwan (recordkeeping) .国王决定事情的对错。领导者不一定是伊斯兰教教徒,但用伊斯兰传统和文化来统治社会和提高高层的生活质量。Almoravids,撒哈拉的部落民族,转为穆斯林并进攻加纳国,给加纳换了一个穆斯林皇帝。加纳国因土地资源耗尽和战乱解散为一个个部落。

Great Zimbabwe

1000 CE - 1400 CE

南非为最后被伊斯兰教影响的地方。在1000 CE左右,Shona,南非的居民,在Zambezi river附近淘金并与其他地区交易。Great Zimbabwe以黄金交易为国家的经济基础。他们later开始开采矿物质。 这个王国留下了很多石头建筑。

Crusader States in the Middle East

1096 CE - 1272 CE

Kingdom of Mali

1200 CE - 1450 CE

随着加纳国的败落,Mali崛起了。Sundiata建立了这个西非王国。他采用了联邦国家制度。Mali位处黄金盛产地,纳贡和商业税收是它的主要收入来源, 农业是它的经济基础。Sundiata说王国既是部落又是穆斯林。 Uli,王国继任者要求所有人都信奉伊斯兰教。此举使王国和阿拉伯地区更为友好,并且统一的宗教有利于国王的管理。学校开始教授伊斯兰观念。黄金和盐变为当时的mediums of exchange.

王国最鼎盛时期为MANSA MUSA统治的时期。他扩大国土,人口广增,并指派皇族成员为官员。他是一个认真的穆斯林,带头参加很多宗教活动,并去麦加朝圣了一次。

很多学校教授可兰经,书本当时销量为全球第一。很多穆斯林与当地女子结婚,成功传播了伊斯兰教。

The Mongols

1258 CE

Ottoman Empire

1300 CE - 1923 CE

Songhay

1464 CE

Sonni Ali 征服了MALI 并扩大国土,掌管黄金交易。Songhay变成了西非史上最大的王国。在1591时,阿拉伯地区壮大并开始管理黄金交易,撒哈拉以南散落回部落。

The Byzantine Empire, Kievna State, and Sassanian Perisa (500 CE - 1453 CE)

Sassanian Empire

240 CE - 651 CE

Ardashir杀了最后的Parthian国王并建立了Sassanian王国。这个王国位处商业交易中心,商业繁荣。拜占庭和波斯货币都是丝绸之路城市的通用货币。这个王国觉得自己是Achaemenids的继承王国,它的宗教是Zoroastrianism.priest与国王联合,帮助国王管理国家。因为腐败,一个结合了佛教,基督教和Zoroastrianism的教MANICHEANISM出现了。这个教讲究光与黑暗的斗争。此教使国王更加的容忍diversity,也使国家的首都变成精英汇聚的地方。这个王国最终因伊斯兰教的崛起而被阿拉伯人消灭。

Byzantine Empire

527 CE - 1453 CE

拜占庭帝国以希腊语为语言,罗马为法律体系,天主教(东正教-Eastern Orthodoxy)为文化。

emperor Justinian 9527 - 565)
拜占庭帝国在他的统治下到达鼎盛,他的妻子使国王颁布允许女人拥有土地的法令提高了妇女的地位。 国王本身战胜了波斯帝国,扩张了国土,还建筑了很多公共设施。他最为出名的是Justinian's code. 他的法律综合并改良了罗马帝国的法律,是现有欧洲国家的法律参考。

拜占庭帝国一直被攻击,在626被波斯人攻击,在674到678被穆斯林攻击,在1024被十字军进攻。拜占庭帝国国土一点点被吞并,在1453终于被奥斯曼帝国攻破。

虽然一直被攻击,拜占庭帝国的防御非常有可取之处。蓄水池的建造使他们在水管被切断的状态下可以延续。他们有精良的军队。他们将国家划分为地区theme,并由地区军官管理。stirrups和Greek fire 也用于战争。国王的外交能力很强,能诱惑一个国家攻打另一个国家,很多当今的外交语言也来自拜占庭帝国。

拜占庭的社会
拜占庭的社会高度organize.商业由政府严格管理和测量。政府和教堂提供免费health care,有组织照顾穷人。无工作和懒散是种罪过。但是拜占庭国王的刺杀率极高,约有88位国王被刺身亡。拜占庭的位置使它商业繁荣,国家的商业和手工业非常厉害,很多人都会来拜占庭学习手工。因为商业是国家的经济支柱,所以国土的减少并没有影响国家的繁荣。

Kevian Russian State

862 CE - 1240 CE

俄罗斯人原是Salvic人的一部分,他们以部落的形式存在。Russian primary chronicle (first Russian history)记载原俄罗斯的十二个部落决定要统一,推举PRINCE RURIK OF SCANDINAVIA为第一个国王。俄罗斯王朝开始了。

KIEVAN RUSSIA 是俄罗斯的首个state,它是一个由300个city-state组成的。 每个city-state都有自己的council(veche)。city-state由大国王,法律和基督教链接起来。在995, 一个国王转而信奉东正教。俄罗斯接受了一个字母表(cyrillic alphabet- named after saint Cyril, a Byzantine missionaty)

Kiev的衰落和拜占庭的衰落有关,再加上蒙古人的入侵,很多city-state被毁。

liturgy-礼拜仪式

Russian conversion to Christianity

988 CE

在988年,VIADIMIR王子在比较了伊斯兰教,天主教,犹太教和东正教后,因被拜占庭帝国的繁荣而震惊,决定要国家信奉东正教。(当然王子应该也考虑到了俄罗斯和拜占庭的经济和政治关系)正是俄罗斯史上最重大的决定。在1000左右,俄罗斯的第一套法律出生。

Split between Roman Christian and Orthodox Christian Churches

1054 CE

天主教和东正教早有分歧,东教会注重苦行而西教会则注重传教。在700到800 CE,对于iconoclasm的问题也有分歧。还有一项是关于三位一体之中,圣父(上帝),圣子(耶稣)与圣灵三者之间的关系。罗马一方认为“圣灵是由圣父和圣子而出”,而君士坦丁堡一方则认为应该是“圣灵是由圣父而出”,少掉一个“圣子”。schism,最终的分裂在1054年。分裂后,教皇pope在天主教中为地位最高的.在东方,教堂领导patriarch没有大权力,国王来管理教堂体系。

The Rise of Feudal States (500CE-1600CE)

Medieval Western Europe

500 CE - 1300 CE

中世纪指代从古典希腊和罗马到现代的时间。这个时代被称为Dark Ages 因为这个时期战争很多,同时很多人不识字。 这个时代也被称作Age of Faith 因为基督教当时统一了西欧。中世纪从第五世纪游牧民族的入侵开始。

封建制度
Feudalism- a decentralized political system oriented to defemse; anagrarian economy; a hierarchial social system; a culture permeated by the military and a religious preoccupation with death.封建系统来源于德国的部落文化(战士保家卫国,国王给予战士奖赏)。贵族lord在自己的地里有自己的小政府。vassals诸侯帮贵族服务,表达忠心,就可以获得封地fiefs.封地一般有一到两个庄园manors。农民给诸侯劳力以换取保护和耕种地。serfs or villeins are bond to the land and inherit the position while free peasants rent the land and can move, but lack the protection from vassals.

封建制度的成功很大因于open field system- manor or village lands were divided into many narrow strips of land. The strips or selions were cultivated by individuals or peasant families, often called tenants or serfs. The holdings of a manor also included woodland and pasture areas for common usage and fields belonging to the lord of the manor and the church. The farmers customarily lived in individual houses in a nucleated village with a much larger manor house and church nearby.加上马的运用(马力气大而且吃得比牛少),农业很发达。贵族跟诸侯和诸侯跟农民的合约一般写在纸上(contractualism)让责任和义务标记的很清楚。 小镇一般有charter from lord (allowed to self-governed). 小镇人民在guilds调整小镇的运行。商业在当时因为战乱很危险,所以道路,城市和奢侈品很稀有。

在西欧,Christian church provided the only extensive organization in an otherwise unorganized time. 教堂的权力在君主之上。教皇致力于清除异教和发扬天主教。他们有很多次的crusade。Pope Urban II callled the first crusade in 1095.

天主教文化
天主教保留了罗马的legal tradition. 人民的生活和假日和天主教息息相关。骑士的准则(chivalty)也是来源于宗教.很多在这个时代的文学也和宗教相关。天主教影响了建筑风格。Romanesque和Gothic则为产物。 当时的主要哲学思想为Scholasticism,致力于用逻辑来解释宗教。

excommunication- explusion from church and thus go to hell after death)
sacraments- ceremonies
canon-church laws

Age of Charlemagne

768 CE - 814 CE

随着一些贵族权力的增大,开始出现monarchies.Charlemagne为最著名的法国monarchy。他征服了很多地方,想要重新统一西罗马,但是他的意图失败了。在843, 他的三个外孙在treaty of verdun把他的王国瓜分了。

Unification of Germany

936 CE

Unification of France

987 CE

在大约九世纪,欧洲迎来了又一波游牧民族的攻击。当时出现了新的团体Vikings (海盗)。他们殖民了诺曼底,殖民了冰岛和爱尔兰穿过黑海到达波斯,还有一波Norwegians在1000到达了北美。

到十二世纪,游牧民族的攻击停止了。 一些贵族开始壮大并把自己当做国王,设立世袭制的王朝体系。 Capetian在巴黎统一和扩大自己的势力。为了摆脱教皇的控制,他们与自己领地的人开会(Estates Gerneral)并成立了世界首个parlement.Phillip, the leader开始自己选择官员管理军队和统一语言。

Unification of England

1066 CE

在1066,法国的William I穿过了英吉利海峡, 在一个“Salisbury Oath"(显忠诚用的), 一个模式审判书(类似于人口普查,主要用于了解税收) “Domesday book" 和一个Great Council下,他成立了English state. Henry II 引入了法庭制度,法官审判代替了逼供。 从此English law become a common law for all Englishmen. 在King John的时候,他因为割让法国给教皇,然后让诸侯纳过分的税,所以人民决定建立了Parliament来限制国王的权力。国王签订了Magna Carta,承诺给贵族优待,接受法律和不收不必要的税。 在继任的Henry III 和 Edward I, 第一个Parliament建立了并分为两个大会-HOUSE OF LORDS AND HOUSE OF COMMONS以来代表不同团体。

Kamakura Shogunate

1192 CE - 1333 CE

在平安时代的日本,君主想要中央集权,贵族想要自由。贵族赢了,政府想要分发土地给农民以削弱权贵家族的权力。但是政府太弱了,没有办法实施,权贵家族反而更加强大。内部战争爆发,封建制度此时渗入日本。军事领导者往往是有权力的人,他们掌握着大量的土地。他们把土地给佛教的人以免去税收,然后收取租金。农民的地位更为底下,很多人转而寻求宗教安慰。
JoDo- Pure Land, promise of heaven afterlife. cetral of the faith was the belief in AMIDA 阿弥陀佛

武士价值
Samurai之前为一阶级,后来开始有封地。他们像欧洲的骑士一样有自己的律法-Bushido,or WAy of the Warrior。他们注重简单困苦的生活。如果输了,为了显示忠诚,很多武士选择切腹自尽(seppuku)。武士大多信奉Zen Buddhism因为它注重meditation.
Noh Theater是以前日本的剧院。

日本很多的家族兴起又衰落。日本的封建制度没有像欧洲一样衰落因为日本的君皇虽有名目,但是除却朝廷权力不大。加上日本的贵族很多,占了人口的十分之一。在1192, Minamoto family and the leader Yoritomo became shortgun and began the Kamakura Shogunate. 他建立了他的政府(bakufu)。为了加强中央集权,他给了诸侯地权但不是地,然后亲自指名官员。但是官员后来都变成世袭制。

Appanage Russia

1240 CE - 1462 CE

在kievan Russian States 之后,内乱和外侵使俄罗斯变成了appanage(separate holdings by individual princes)。这个时段持续到蒙古人的入侵。俄罗斯王子们因为不能统一他们的力量所以很容易就被蒙古人占领。蒙古人用王子们来管理他们原先的领地,王子们只需要按时纳贡。莫斯科王子最终挺过了蒙古人的统治,宣布了独立并开始统一俄罗斯。

Appanages
- a united state was shattered and decentralized
- small trade towns were apparent in some places; agrarian states, in others.
- Warriors and nobles predominated as the upper class
- Religion played a role in preserving and identifying a culture being.

Ashikaga Shogunate

1338 - 1573

另一位军事领导Ashikaga当权,建立了Ashikaga Shogunate。 武士阶层成功拿到政治政权。但是当国王死后,他的子孙开始争夺王国并分裂出了300多个小政权。小政权们开始鼓励农民生产商品以变得更富有。日本的商业开始发展。

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1867

在1560, Oda Nobunaga统一了日本的货币,服装,习俗和鼓励工业和商业。 Toyotomi Hideyoshi centralized instituitions and his agents collected detailed information about taxable peoperty. 最终,Tokugawa Ieyasu建立了Tokugawa Shogunate。国王将贵族与军事阶级隔开以控制封建贵族。

火药在Nagashino and Hideyoshi对于日本的征服起了很大的作用。在Tokugawa成立后,政府不允许农民再使用军火。日本内部也掀起了一股反对基督教的风潮,因为政府害怕西班牙和葡萄牙会用基督教来殖民日本。日本的高层开始花很多时间在艺妓geishas和Kabuki theater上。高层的奢侈消费加大了农民的税收,农民起义很多。但日本相对和平的这段日子使商业和城市生活发展。