European History

Eras/Trends

more centralized national governments

1400 - 1700

Renaissance

1400 - 1600

growing secularism

1400 - 1500

growing individualism

1400 - 1500

Military Revolution

1560 - 1660

Romanov Dynasty

1613 - 1917

Absolutism

1650 - 1750

Bourbon Dynasty (Spain)

1713 - 1868

Hanover Dynasty

1714 - 1901

Romanticism

1770 - 1848

conservatism

1815 - 1830

Realism

1848 - 1890

Second Republic

November 1848 - 1851

Third French Republic

1871 - 1940

new imperialism

1880 - 1914

Soviet Union/USSR

1917 - 1991

Decolonization

1947 - 1974

Dentente

1972 - 1979

Rulers/Politicians

Charles VII

1422 - 1461

Cosimo de Medici

1434 - 1464

Louis XI

1461 - 1483

Lorenzo de Medici

1469 - 1492

Isabella of Castile

1474 - 1504

Ferdinand of Aragon

1479 - 1516

Henry VII

1485 - 1509

Court of Star Chamber

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Suleimann the Magnificient

1520 - 1566

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Philip II

1556 - 1598

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Henry III

1574 - 1589

Elizabeth I

1588 - 1603

Henry IV

1594 - 1610

James I

1603 - 1625

Gustavus Adolphus

1611 - 1632

Cardinal Richelieu

1624 - 1642

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Frederick William the Great Elector

1640 - 1688

Cardinal Mazarin

1643 - 1661

Oliver Cromwell

1649 - 1658

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Louis XIV

1661 - 1715

James II

1685 - 1688

Peter the Great

1689 - 1725

William III of Orange

1689 - 1702

Robert Wadpole

1721 - 1741

Maria Theresa of Austria

1740 - 1780

Frederick the Great

1740 - 1786

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Louis XVI

1774 - January 23 1793

Robespierre

1789 - 1794

Napoleon

1799 - 1815

As consul: 1799-1804

As emperor: 1804-1815

Benjamin Disraeli

1804 - 1881

Guiseppe Garibaldi

1807 - 1882

Count Camillo di Cavour

1810 - 1861

Otto von Bismarck

1815 - 1890

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Queen Victoria

1837 - 1901

William Gladstone

1840 - 1898

Napoleon III

1848 - 1870

Victor Emmanuel

1849 - 1878

Second French Empire

1852 - 1871

Alexander II

1855 - 1881

Kaiser Wildem I

1861 - 1888

Victor Emmanuel

March 17 1861 - 1878

Nicolas II

1894 - 1917

Vladimir Lenin

1917 - 1924

Joseph Stalin

1927 - 1953

Nikita Krushchev

1955 - 1964

Brezhnev

1964 - 1982

Gorbachev

1985 - 1991

Wars/Conflicts

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

Joan of Arc

1412 - 1431

Peace of Lodi

1454

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

Habsburg-Valois Wars

1521 - 1544

The Peasants' War

June 1524 - May 1525

Sack of Rome

1527

Schmalkaldic Wars

1546 - 1555

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Dutch Revolts

1566 - 1609

Battle of Lepanto

1571

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 1572

Spanish Armada

1588

War of Three Henries

1588 - 1589

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Albrecht von Wallenstein

1625 - 1634

English Civil War

1642 - 1648

The Fronde

1648 - 1652

Great Northern War

1701 - 1721

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

France declares war on Austria

April 20 1792

Napoleonic Wars

1803 - 1815

Napoleon Indvades Russia

1812

and suffered through the terrible Russian winter

Battle of Waterloo

1815

marks end of Napoleon. and it rained that day.

Opium Wars

1839 - 1842

Revolutions of 1848

1848

France, Hungary, Prussia, Austria

Crimean War

1854 - 1856

result: no one is friends anymore

Sepoy Mutiny

1857

Piedmont-Sardinia vs. Austria

1859

with help of France

Danish War

1864

Allied w/ Austria vs Danish

Schleswig-Holstein

Austro-Prussian War

1866

was only 7 weeks long

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Boer War

1899 - 1902

1905 Revolution

1905

Russo Japanese War

1905

World War I

july 28 1914 - november 11 1918

Russian Revolution

1917

World War II

September 1 1939 - August 14 1945

Cold War

1946 - 1991

Domestic Policies

Petition of Right

1628

Edict of Restitution

1629

Charles I's personal rule

1629 - 1640

Triennial Act

1641

The Commonwealth

1649 - 1653

Declaration of Indulgence

1672

Test Act

1673

Declaration of Indulgence #2

1687

Glorious Revolution

1688

Bill of Rights

1689

Enclosure Acts

1700 - 1801

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

August 26 1789

Levee en Masse

aug 23 1793

Civil Code

1804

Reform Bill

1832

factory act

1833

children's workday max 8 hrs & children under 9 must attend school

Poor Law of 1834

1834

forced the destitute to enter into workhouses

conditions purposefully miserable to discourage assistance

People's Charters of 1838

1838

inspired Chartist movemen

Mines Act

1842

prohibit women & children under 10 from underground mine work

Modernization of Paris

1850 - 1870

Paris Commune

1871

Events

Black Death

1347 - 1351

Siege of Constantinople

1453

reconquista complete

1492

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

Holy League formed

1576

Union of Arras

1579

North & South Dutch Provinces UNITE

Independence of United Provinces

1648

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Peace of the Pyrenees

1659

ended Spanish & French wars

France gained the Spanish Netherlands, which eventually→Belgium (1815)

Versailles built

1660 - 1688

League of Augsburg

1686 - 1715

almost everyone vs. the French

Act of Union

1707

united Scotland & England→Great Britain

Peace of Utrecht

1713

Peace of Nystadt

1721

end great Northern War

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

1748

Treaty of Paris

1763

Estates-General Meets

5/5/1789

for first time since 1614!

Tennis Court Oath

june 17 1789

Bastille

July 14 1789

Great Fear

8/4/1789 - 1790

Declaration of Pillnitz

August 27 1791

Austria officially vs. French Revolution

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Continental System established

1806

Concert of Europe

1815 - 1848

Congress of Vienna

1815

Chartist Movement

1838 - 1850

Treaty of Nanking

1842

China forced to pay $100 mil reparations & cede Hong Kong

Irish Potato Famine

1846

Great Exhibition of 1851

1851

creation of Liberal Empire

1859

Napoleon III declares France a constitutional monarchy

Suez Canal Built

1869

by French, in Egypt

Unification of Italy

1870

Unification of Germany

1871

English seize control of Suez Canal

1875

Congress of Berlin

1878

British begin protectorate over Egypt

1882

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

Kaiser Wilhelm II forces Bismarck to retire

1890

because Kaiser Wilhelm II didn't like Bismarck

European Union Formed

1991

Religion

Desiderius Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Inquisition

1478 - 1834

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Ulrich Zwingli

1484 - 1531

Ignatius Loyola

1491 - 1556

Expulsion of Jews

1492

Menno Simmons

1496 - 1561

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1700

Expulsion of Muslims

1502

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

The Praise of Folly

1511

by Erasmus

Utopia

1516

by Thomas More

95 Theses

1517

by Luther

Three Pamphlets by Luther

1520

The Address to the Nobility of the German Nation
Babylonian Captivity of the Church
On the Freedom of a Christian Man

Diet of Worms

1521

Schmalkaldic League formed

1531

Act of Supremacy

1534

Institutes of the Christian Religion

1536

by John Calvin

Society of Jesus (Jesuits) recognized as a religious order

1540

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Elizabethan Compromise

1559 - 1603

Edict of Nantes

1598 - 1685

revoked by Louis XIV in 1685 (Edict of Fontainebleau)

Pensees

1669

by Blaise Pascal

Edicts of Toleration

1781

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

1790

Churches reopened for public worship

Feb 21 1795

Concordat w/ Catholic Church

1801

Use Church to support popularity

1851 - 1870

Theodore Herzl

1860 - 1904

Zionist

Doctrine of Papal Infallibility

1871

the pope is always right when it comes to official statements about faith

Rerum Novarum

1891

led to establishment of the Catholic Socialist Movement

Dreyfus Affair

1894 - 1906

J'accuse

1896

by Emile Zola

in reaction to the Dreyfus Affair

First Zionist Congress

1897

in Switzerland

Science/Discovery/Technology

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

single point perspective invented

1420

Gutenberg Press invented

1452

Nicolas Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Bartholomew Dias sails around the Cape of Good Hope

1487

Columbus Reaches America

1492

Vasco de Gama reaches India

1498

Hernan Cortes reaches Mexico

1519

Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigates globe

1519

Francisco Pizarro reaches Peru

1530

On the Fabric of the Human Body

1543

by Andreas Vesalius

On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres

1543

by Copernicus

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

William Harvey

1578 - 1657

Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World

1632

by Galileo

Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

Royal Society founded

1662

Principia

1687

by Isaac Newton

Steam engine invented

1774

mule by Samuel Crompton

1790

Charles Darwin

1809 - 1882

discovery of quinine

1820

an effective treatment for malaria

George Stephenson's Rocket

1830

the first industrial railroad engine

ran between Liverpool and Manchester at 16 mph

Telegraph

1830

Alfred Nobel

1833 - 1896

Nobel of the Nobel Peace Prize

also invented dynamite

Bessemer Process

1855

iron as metal of choice→steel as metal of choice

Synthetic dyes

1856

revolutionized textile industry

The Origin of Species

1859

ice-making machines

1870

allowed perishables to be transported around the world

Telephone

1876

Alexander Graham Bell

Phonograph

1876

Thomas Edison

incandescent lamp invented

1879

Thomas Edison

Internal Combustion engines

1885

powered by gasoline

invented by Karl Benz

Wilhelm Rontgen accidentally discovers X-rays

1895

The Interpretations of Dreams

1900

Sigmund Freud

Quantum physics (Max Planck)

1901

Airplanes

1903

invented by the Wright Brothers

Marie Curie isolates Radium

1910

Economy

Hanseatic League

1358 - 1500

Capitalism

1400 - 1991

Jacob Fugger

1459 - 1525

Price Revolution

1500 - 1650

Columbian Exchange

1518 - 1850

joint stock companies

1600 - 1800

mercantilism

1600 - 1800

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1750

Dutch East India Company Formed

1602

Jean Baptiste Colbert

1619 - 1683

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Wealth of Nations

1776

Essay on Population

1798

by Malthus

bad pay best because good pay→more children→misery from overpopulation

GNP rise 3.5 times & pop rose 2.5 times

1801 - 1851

2nd Industrial Revolution

1848 - 1900

Economic depression of 1873

1873

Led to more anti-Semitism

Arts

Filippo Brunelleschi

1377 - 1446

Donatello

1386 - 1466

Jan van Eyck

1390 - 1441

Dome of Duomo built

1420 - 1436

Sandro Botticelli

1445 - 1510

Leonardo da Vinci

1452 - 1519

Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

Raphael

1483 - 1520

Horseman of the Apocalypse

1498

by Albrecht Durer

David

1501

by Michelangelo

St. Peter's Basilica built

1506 - 1626

School of Athens

1510

by Raphael

Sistine Chapel

1512

by Michelangelo

El Greco

1541 - 1614

William Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Caravaggio

1573 - 1610

Baroque Period

1575 - 1700

Peter Paul Rubens

1577 - 1640

Artemesia Gentileschi

1593 - 1653

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

1598 - 1680

Dutch Golden Age

1600 - 1700

Rembrandt van Rijn

1606 - 1669

Judith Leyster

1609 - 1660

Rococo

1715 - 1785

Eugene Delacroix

1798 - 1863

Franz Liszt

1811 - 1886

Leo Tolstoy

1828 - 1910

Liberty Leading the People

1831

by Eugene Delacroix

aka Viva la Vida painting

Edouard Manet

1832 - 1883

Paul Cezanne

1839 - 1906

Claude Monet

1840 - 1926

Emile Zola

1840 - 1902

Realism

1848 - 1880

Vincent van Gogh

1853 - 1890

Impressionism

1874 - 1890

Anna Karenina

1877

by Leo Tolstoy

Philosophy

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Civic Humanism

1400 - 1450

Lorenzo Valla

1407 - 1457

Platonic Academy

1438 - 1494

Christian Humanism

1450 - 1525

Oration on the Dignity of Man

1480

by Pico della Mirandola

The Prince

1513

by Niccolo Machiavelli

The Book of Courtiers

1528

by Castiglione

Tears of the Indians

1542

by Bartolomeo de las Casas

Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

Rene Descartes

1598 - 1650

John Locke

1632 - 1704

discourse on Method

1636

by Rene Descartes

Leviathan

1651

by Thomas Hobbes

Two Treatises of Government

1688

by John Locke

Montesquieu

1689 - 1755

Essay on Human Understanding

1690

by John Locke

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Denis Diderot

1713 - 1784

Immanuel Kant

1724 - 1804

Spirit of the Laws

1748

by Montesquieu

deism

1750 - 1789

Mary Wollstonecraft

1759 - 1797

Candide

1759

by Voltaire

The Social Contract

1762

by Rousseau

Emile

1762

by Rousseau

On Crimes and Punishment

1764

Robert Owen

1771 - 1858

Charles Fourier

1772 - 1837

Utopian Socialist who proposed phalanstery

Critique of Pure Reason

1781

by Immanuel Kant

Reflections on the Revolution in France

1790

root of modern conservatism

Declaration of the Rights of Woman

1791

by Olympe de Gouges

Vindication of the Rights of Women

1792

Joseph Proudhon

1809 - 1865

considered to be the father of anarchism

Louis Blanc

1811 - 1882

Utopian Socialists & led the radicals in the Revolution of 1848

Louis Blanc

1813 - 1882

Utopian Socialist

Karl marx

1818 - 1883

Liberalism

1830 - 1880

What is Property

1840

answer: Property is Theft

by Joseph Proudhon (the anarchist)

Report on the Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain

1842

Friedrich Nietzsche

1844 - 1900

Communist Manifesto

1848

by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Edward Bernstein

1850 - 1932

Emmeline Pankhurst

1858 - 1928

On Liberty

1859

by John Stuart Mill

argue for personal freedom that needed to be protected from both gov't censorship & tyranny of the majority

Evolutionary Socialism

1898

by Edward Bernstein