Elizabeth's Foreign relations

Scotland

Strong ties with France and the Guise Family

Scotland 1559-60

1559 - 1560

Mary Queen of Scots Husband the King of France- more French influence in Scotland- this caused rebellion by protestant nobles- the Lords of the Congregation. The rebellion was also heightened by the Scottish unpopularity of Mary Guise ( Queen regent) and her French influence.

Eliziabeth's and the rebels In Scotland

August 1559

If Elizabeth was to send aid to the rebels and they were to win that would eliminate the French influence in Scotland and they would be indebted to the English, it would also reduce the threat of Mary Queen of Scots who may and was challenging Elizabeth to the throne however if they lost it would be unlikely that Scotland would become protestant and also an invasion from the French would be likely. Elizabeth was also a worried about the effects it might have on Philip II and their alliance it might not last if she aided a protestant rebellion against the Catholics. why she did nothing for months was because she did not want to be seen as the one who breaks the alliance with France.

The treaty of Edinburgh

1560

The French began to lose influence in Scotland after the death of Mary Guise, France will leave Scotland and allow them to make there own government.

The problem Mary Queen of Scots

1561

Mary's rein as Queen of France was short lived her husband died 18 months after coming to the throne, he was succeeded by Francis younger brother Charles IX- this led to Catherine De Medici becoming the most powerful figure in the French Government. There was no longer a need for Mary in France and she was returned to Scotland, in August 1561, she had last been in Scotland when she was six, this was not her home, she was more French than Scottish, she was also a Catholic. She did not attempt to over turn the reformation of the Scottish government- she ruled in peace.

Elizabeth , Mary and the succession

1561 - 1564

After Elizabeth Mary had a strong claim to the English throne even though the act of succession ( Henry VIII 1536) had missed her out and named the Grey's as next in line, she had a real chance of becoming queen in 1561 and 1564 when Elizabeth became seriously ill. Mary hoped that Elizabeth would recognise her as her heir - Elizabeth did not. they planed to meet but because of the French Civil War Elizabeth could not be seen as in collaboration with a Catholic Monarch ( the meeting was never reconvened)Mary became increasing frustrated with Elizabeth.

The marriage proposal

1564

It was proposed that Mary should marry Robert Dudley- this came to nothing. Mary then married Lord Darnley, who was also a descendant of Henry VIII He was born in England and held English land.

Mary and her subjects

1566

Darnley who was heir to the Leenox family, resurrected old family rivalries ( other leading families). Mary did not control the problem but she worsened the situation, with her messed up married life. Mary was taken prisoner by her own subjects.

The Birth of James

June 1566

James was born. Her marriage to Darnley and the birth of James was the turning point in Mary's reign over Scotland.

Darnley's murder and Mary's new husband

1567

Darneley was murdered. Mary then married Lord Bothwell, who is believed to have murdered Darneley.

James is King and Mary leaves

July 1567

Mary's behaviour caused a rebellion of her people. The Scottish nobility forced Mary to abdicate in favour of her son, the imprisoned her for her own safety. Mary fled to England, to gain aid from Elizabeth. However Elizabeth did not want her in England as she caused a problem, so she kept her captive in England. Elizabeth did not want to resotore her as Queen of Scotland because of her close ties with France, however she was another monarch ( divine right), she also did not want to be seen aiding protestant rebels fears of Spain.

France

In association with Scotland.

Anglo French treaty

1559 - 1560

One of Elizabeth's first foreign policy was an Anglo- French treaty- the TREATY OF CATEU-CAMBRESIS, this treaty allowed Elizabeth to reclaim Cialis, the French would keep Cialis for 8 years then it would be returned to England as long as the kept the peace (including Spain). This meant Elizabeth would still have a foothold in France.

Henry II's death

July 1559

Henry II died in a jousting accident. This brought an end to the peaceful foreign relations. Henry's successor was Francis II ( the husband of Mary) he was only 15 and she only 17, the real rulers of France became the Guise Family. The Guise Family was the most noble family in France they had influence in Scotland Mary Guise was queen regent (unpopular) in Scotland was the sister of the Duke of Guise could manipulate Scotland for the benefit of France.

Iterevention of France

1562 - 1564

In early 1562 Elizabeth sent aid to the Huguenots ( French Protestants) after the massacre of Huguenots which led to the French civil war. Dudley and Throckmorton pleaded with Elizabeth to send aid to France, which she did under the control of Dudley's brother the Earl of Warwick to the garrison of the Huguenots in the Port of le Havre. Elizabeth probably did this not as an act of protestant support/opportunity but as a bargaining chip for Cialis. Therefore she gave little aid - the treaty of HAMPTON COURT, she gave aid in the form of £3000 and men. Elizabeth was aware of there status of rebels. The division within France closed and the English became the common enemy- Le Haver was taken back by the French and the English garrison had been devastated by disease.

Treaty of Troyes

April 1564

Elizabeth had to accept the terms of the treaty of Troyes, confirming the control of Cialis to the French forever. This intervention had lost Elizabeth, money, men and prestige. However limits of her own ambitions had kept her losses down some previous monarchs/ rulers may have wasted even more than she had.

The Treaty of Bouge

1572

A deffence allience against Spain , there was marriage negoations with Frace and England, France also said that they would abandon assosation with Mary Queen of Scots.

The mascarse of Huguenots

1572

Cathernine de Madeci order the death of a Catholic gernaral, this resulted it a mass killing of Huguenots, this brought about an end to the treaty.

Lonsong- Marriage negotiations

1579

Marriage negoations began again with Frace sothat to help her with the Spanish treat.

Fraco-Spanish treaty

1584

The treaty was made to stop Henry Navarre becoming King, because at this point he had inhretedd the throne and he was a Protestant and Frace was Catholic.

Spain

Has control of the Netherlands.

England allies with Spain

1558

This friendship was based on a mutual anti- French sentiment. The alliance was strengthened by the massive amount of trade between the two, most of Elizabeth's income came from duties of export of wool and cloth that passed Phillips ports. The only issue between the allies was religion at this time neither side wanted war.

Phillips warning to Elizabeth

1562 - 1565

A warning to Elizabeth, about events in France with the Huguenots. He did not approve of her sending aid to protestant rebels, to show he was serious he shut down the port of Flanders to English merchants, trade resumed in 1565

Elizabeth risks the Anglo- Spanish alliance

1562 - 1564

Elizabeth involved herself in the French civil war, this led to the warning from Philip, trade with the Netherlands could not take place because Philip closed his ports to the English. So the English sourced other ports and found Germany and the Baltic, good for the merchants. England no longer depended only on the Spanish for trade in the Netherlands, this weakened the Anglo- Spanish relationship.

The weakening of the Anglo- Spanish relationship

1568

The relationship was weakened further when due to storm damage Hawkins had to take shelter at a Spanish port (San Juan de Ulua in the colonies. A Spanish fleet found him and thought he was a pirate killing all the sailors and taking statue of Jesus the Queen had provided- Hawkins lost most of his proceeds of the voyage. however Spain and England thought that they were both right this caused hostility between the two.

Hostilities heighten

November 1568

A Spanish fleet was forced into an English port by storms and Huguenots pirates. The fleet was carrying gold to pay Alva's army in the Netherlands, the gold was seized and taken to London in retaliation to what happened to Hawkins. In retaliation the Spanish arrested all English merchants in the Netherlands, so Elizabeth arrested all Spanish merchants in English ports.

Trading again

1573

Trade between England and Spain recommences after 5 years out of trade with one another.

Netherlands

Under the rule of Spain

Philip's last visit

1559

Due to problems with Turkish fleets in the Mediterranean, which caused Philip to leave the Netherlands, he never came back.

Protestants

1566

Philip was initially going to tolerate the protestant revolt.

Turing point

1567

The turning point in the Anglo- Spanish relationship was when Philip sent an army under the control of the Duke of Alva, into the Netherlands to crush a revolt. This caused alarm in England Cecil believed that an army in the Netherlands could lead to A Spanish invasion on England. this put strain on the Anglo- Spanish relationship.

Elizabeth opening England's doors

1567

Elizabeth allowed exiled protestants to live in England.

Retaliation

1568

see Spain 1568- the weakening of the Anglo- Spanish relationship and Hostilities heighten.