Civil Rights/ Cold War

Civil rights

No military segregation

1948

President Truman issues an executive order outlawing segregation in the U.S. military.

Brown vs Board of Education

1954

The Supreme Court declares school segregation unconstitutional in its ruling on Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas.

Rosa Parks bus boycott

1955

Rosa Parks is jailed for refusing to move to the back of a Montgomery, Alabama, bus. A boycott follows, and the bus segregation ordinance is declared unconstitutional.

Little Rock 9

1957

First Arkansas school to integrate, Arkansas Gov. Orval Faubus uses the National Guard to block nine black students from attending Little Rock High School. Following a court order, President Eisenhower sends in federal troops to allow the black students to enter the school.

Greensboro sit in

1960

Four black college students begin sit-ins at the lunch counter of a Greensboro, North Carolina, restaurant where black patrons are not served.

Freedom riders

1961

Freedom Rides begin from Washington, D.C., into Southern states. Student volunteers are bused in to test new laws prohibiting segregation.

Integrate transportation

1962

The Supreme Court rules that segregation is unconstitutional in all transportation facilities.

Complete military integration

1962

The Department of Defense orders complete integration of military reserve units, excluding the National Guard.

JFK assasinatioon

1963

JFK killed in Dallas, texas

I have a Dream- MLK

August 28, 1963

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his "I Have a Dream" speech to hundreds of thousands at the March on Washington, D.C.

Civil Rights Act

1964

Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, declaring discrimination based on race illegal.

3 Civil Rights workers kidnapped

1964

Three civil rights workers, two white and one black man, disappear in Mississippi. They were found dead and tortured six weeks later.

New Voting Rights act

1965

A new Voting Rights Act, which made it illegal to force would-be voters to pass literacy tests in order to vote, is signed.

Malcolm X assassinated

1965

Malcolm X is assassinated. Malcolm X, a longtime minister of the Nation of Islam, had rejected Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s policies of non-violence. He preached black pride and economic self-reliance for blacks. He eventually became a Muslim and broke with Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad.

Thurgood Marshall in Supreme Court

1967

Thurgood Marshall becomes the first black to be named to the Supreme Court.

MLK assassinated

1968

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. James Earl Ray pleaded guilty of the crime in March 1969 and was sentenced to 99 years in prison.

Civil rights act of 1968

1968

President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.

Integrate med school positions

1978

The Supreme Court rules, in a well-known reverse discrimination case (Bakke), that medical school admission programs that allow for positions based on race are unconstitutional.

Cold war

NATO ratified

April 4, 1949

Senator McCarthy spy hunts

1950

Mccarthy used the peoples fear of comunism to accuse many people of being spies- many accused of treason and executed. He was censored in 1954

Korean war begins

june 25, 1950

North Korea invades South Korea by crossing the 38th parallel. The Korean War begins.

Korean war ends

July 27, 1953

Korean War ends with the set up of a DMZ to separate the two new countries.

Warsaw Pact

May 14, 1955

Warsaw Pact, a pact of the USSR and its satellite nations, created.

Latin America aid program

1960

the government sent aid to latin american countries to prevent the spread of communism

Bay of Pigs invasion

April 17, 1961

Bay of pigs invasion is launched, fails in 3 days

Berlin Wall erected

August 13, 1961

Berlin wall is built overnight in order to separate East and West Germany.

Cuban missile crisis

October 1962

the Soviet Union put multiple nuclear missiles in Cuba. The confrontation ended when Kennedy blockaded to Cuba, but caused massive tensions in the US and the fear of nuclear war

Gulf of Tonkin

1964

American boat sunk by Vietnamese, gave president more power to act in Vietnam

200,000 troops sent to Vietnam

July 1965

Two hundred thousand U.S. troops sent to Vietnam replacing the military advisors.

Tet offensive

1968

a surprise attack by north vietnamese took american troops unsuspectadly and raised disaproval rates of the war

Detente

1972

Nixon visits China to ease tensions and establish diplomatic relations

Troop withdrawl

1974

America withdrew troops from vietnam

SALT II treaty

1979

carter met with brezhnev for treaty limiting weapons stockpiles

Russia invades Afghanistan

1979

Russia invaded Afghanistan, evetnually leads to downfall of USSR because of cost.

Poland under martial law

1981

Poland is put under martial law because of solidarity uprising.

Gorbachev adopts Glasnost policy

1985

Soviet government allows free speech against the government.

INF treaty signed

1987

Treaty between USSR and America decreases nuclear stockpiles

Poland holds free elections

1989

Poland holds its first free election in decades

Berlin Wall falls

1989

Many activists tear down the Berlin wall to re-integrate Germany

USSR disbanded

1991

Gorbachev resigns and USSR disbanbands