Natives: substantial authority on women (stayed to tend crops as men went out to hunt) = many matrilinear cultures
Transformed nomadic hunting bands into settled agricultural villages
made possible 3-sister farming, result in some of highest population densities (Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee)
didn't stay b/c no strong nation-state want to expand
his book, with its descriptions of rose-tinted
pearls and golden pagodas, stimulated European
desires for a cheaper route to the treasures of the
facilitate spread of scientific knowledge
also mariner's compass
European sailors didn't sail southward along the coast of West Africa b/c they couldn't go home against the prevailing northerly winds and south-flowing currents. Could sail more closely into the wind, could return to Europe by sailing northwesterly from the African coast toward the Azores, where the prevailing westward breezes would carry them home
slavery already a practice by Arab flesh merchants and Africans before Europeans arrived
Portuguese traded in slaves to work sugar plantations on African coastal islands (São Tomé, Madeira, Canaries, Principe)
Foundations of modern plantation system
new unity resulted primarily from the marriage of two sovereigns, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, and from the brutal expulsion of the “infidel” Muslim Moors from Spain after centuries of Christian-Islamic warfare
Spaniards were eager to outstrip their Portuguese rivals in the race to tap the wealth of the Indies
Thought was Indies, called natives "Indians"
Native New World plants (tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes, potato) revolutionized international economy/European diet, feeding rapid population growth. (fed African population boom). Europeans introduced Old World crops/animals. Spanish- "Black Legend"- false concept that Spanish only tortured/butchered, stole gold, infect smallpox, left misery... they also erected a colossal empire from California and Florida to Tierra del Fuego "genuine empire builders, cultural innovators," Spanish colonial establishment larger, richer, endured longer-- fused with them through marriage and incorporating indigenous culture, not shunning, unlike English
unloaded 1200 men, cattle, swine, horses
horses reached North American mainland through Mexico
North American Indian tribes like Apaches, Sioux, Blackfoot adopted horse --> highly mobile, wide-ranging hunter societies
brought seedlings of sugar cane- sugar revolution in European diet = forced migration of mill. of Africans to world canefields/sugar mills
also brought bacteria, invasive plants (dandelions, daisies, smallpox, yellow fever, malaria)
Spain divided w/ Portugal the "heathen lands" of New World
Spain became dominant exploring/colonizing power in 1500s
died by Indian arrow
started in 1519 w/ 5 ships
beat through strait off tip of S. America
slain by Filipinos
last vessel completes first circumnavigation of glob
aspiring conquerors signed contracts with monarch, raised money from investors, recruit army
only small minority nobles
half professional soldiers/sailors
rest peasants, artisan, middling classes
some royal titles, favors
ensure god's favor by spreading Christianity
escape dubious pasts
sought historical adventure
lust for gold
few received what they wanted
many remained permanently indebted to investors
spoils unevenly divided
immortality: married Indian women- new race of mestizos
sails from Cuba bound for Mexico
rescued Spanish castaway enslaved by Mayan-speaking Indians
picked up female Indian slave Malinche (knew both Mayan, Nahuatl)
burned ships, cutting off retreat
Moctezuma sent ambassadors w/ fabulous gifts
"We Spanish suffer from a strange disease of the heart, for which the only known remedy is gold."
Moctezuma thought he was a god, allowed unopposed
but exhuasted welcome
noche triste of June 30, 1520, drove Spanish away
Cortés laid siege, gave on August 13, 1521
smallpox epidemic also- conquest/disease = 300 years of Spanish rule
Dia de la Raza=Columbus Day
probe eastern seaboard
lots of silver
discovered and crossed Mississippi River just north of Arkansas River junction
mistreated Indians w/ iron collars, fierce dogs
died of fever and wounds
disposed of remains in Mississippi in case Indians exhume/abuse corpse
as far east as Kansas
discovered Grand Canyon of Colorado River and bison herds
by 1600, Spain rich
mostly mines at Potosí in now-Bolivia
price revolution increased consumer costs as much as 500% in 1550-1650
fed growth of capitalism
transformed world economy:
laid foundations of modern commercial banking system
paid for much of international Asian trade
West Indies served as offshore bases for Spanish invasion of mainland Americas
encomienda- allowed gov to "commend" (give) Indians to certain colonists if promised to Christianize them
Bartolomé de Las Casa called it "a moral pestilence invented by Satan"
Spanish = flourishing empire
oldest continually inhabited European settlement
cruelly abuse Pueblo peoples
Battle of Acoma, 1599- sever one foot of each survivor
1610- founds Santa Fe
Pueblo Indian uprising against religious oppression
destroyed every Catholic church in New Mexico, killed priests, hundreds of Spanish settlers
rebuilt a kiva (ceremonial religious chamber) on ruins of Spanish plaza at Santa Fe
took nearly 50 years for Spanish to fully reclaim
hedge against French
founded at San Diego first of 21 missions up coast as far as Sonoma, north of San Francisco Bay
tried to convert the natives
gathered into missions and taught horticulture, basic crafts
did adopt Christianity but lost contact w/ cultures and lives for disease
England: social and economic change at the opening of the 17th century. Landlords were "enclosing" croplands for sheep grazing, forcing many farmers into tenancy or off land. Economic depression hit wollen trade in late 1500s- thousands of farmers took to the roads, chronically unemployed ("surplus population"). Laws of primogeniture decreed: only eldest sons eligible to inherit landed estates. Younger sons forced to seek fortunes elsewhere. But by early 1600s, the joint-stock company (forerunner of the modern corporation) was perfected, allowing many investors to pool their capital. Opportunity (peace with Spain), workers (population growth), motives (unemployment, thirst for adventure, for markets, for religious freedom), and financial means (joint-stock company).
King Henry VIII broke w/ Roman Catholic Church in 1530s
Religious conflict: Catholics/Protestants
Protestantism became dominant in England
rivalry w/ Catholic Spain intensified
semipiratical sea dog: promote Protestantism and plunder Spanish ships/settlements
4600% to financial backers, including Queen Elizabeth, who knighted him
off coast of Virginia (named in honor of of Elizabeth the "Virgin Queen")
Philip II of Spain's 'Invincible Armada' tried to invade England
sailed into English Channel
English craft= swifter, more maneuverable, more ably manned-> inflicted heavy damage on Spanish ships
"Protestant wind" scattered the crippled Spanish fleet
effects: dampened Spain's fighting spirt, helped ensure England's naval dominance in North Atlantic, started England on its way to becoming master of the world oceans
characteristics: strong, unified national state under popular monarch, measure of religious unity after a struggle between Protestants and Catholics, vibrant sense of nationalism/national destiny
"golden age of literature"- Shakespeare, etc.
PLANTATION COLONIES (Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia): devoted to exporting commercial agricultural products (profitable staple crops, notably tobacco and rice... less in North Carolina), slavery (only after 1750 in Georgia), strong aristocratic atmosphere (except in North Carolina, to some extent Georgia), scattering of plantations/farms = retardation of city growth, some religious toleration, to some degree expansionary ("soil butchery" by tobacco called for more land)
Virginia Company of London received charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World.
Intended to endure only a few years, then liquidated for a profit.
Severe pressure on colonists, who were threatened with abandonment.
Charter of the Virginia Company (significant!) guaranteed overseas settlers the same rights of Englishmen at home. This was gradually extended to subsequent English colonies.
Landed first near mouth of Chesapeake Bay. Indian attack.
Eventually, chose location on banks of James River.
Lots of deaths, due to disease, malnutrition, and starvation. Colonists wasted time grubbing for gold instead of gathering provisions.
Reduced to eating "dogges, Catts, Ratts, and Myce," even corpses.
Only 60/400 survived the 'starving time' winter of 1609-1610.
"He who shall not work shall not eat."
Kidnapped December 1607 and subjected to mock execution by Powhatan, whose daughter Pocahontas 'saved' him. Result: a shaky peace, needed foodstuffs.
Survivors of 'starving time' winter attempted to return home, but were ordered back by the new governor, Lord De La Warr.
He imposed a harsh military regime and soon undertook aggressive military action against the Indians.
Economic savior of the Virginia colony.
Tobacco planted everywhere, even had to import foodstuffs. Hunger for land to plant on, pressing the frontier of settlement against Indian areas.
Virginia's prosperity finally built on tobacco, but it was ruinous to the soil. Also- it promoted the broad-acred plantation system and a demand for fresh labor.
When the English landed in 1607, Powhatan had asserted supremacy over a few dozen small tribes, loosely grouped under "Powhatan's Confederacy."
Lord De La Warr had orders from Virginia Company that amounted to a declaration of war against the Indians. A veteran of the Irish campaigns, he introduced 'Irish tactics.' Troops raided Indian villages, burned houses, confiscated provisions, and torched cornfields.
This only ended by peace settlement when Pocahontas married John Rolfe.
Planted the seeds of the North American slave system.
In 1650 only 300 blacks, but by 1700, blacks made up approx. 14% of the colony.
First of many miniature parliaments in America.
Including John Rolfe
New orders from the Virginia Company- "a perpetual war without peace or truce" to prevent the Indians "from being any longer a people"
James I grew hostile to Virginia. He detested tobacco, distrusted House of Burgesses ("seminary of sedition").
Revoked charter--> royal colony directly under his control.
Prominent Catholic Lord Baltimore founded the second plantation colony.
Partly to reap financial profits, partly as refuge for fellow Catholics.
Huge estates were to be awarded to largely Catholic relatives. Colonists proved willing only if given chance for land of their own. Modest farms around Chesapeake region- haughty land barons (Catholics) were surrounded by resentful planters (Protestants).
Open rebellion by the end of the century.
Also acres of tobacco, depended at first mainly on white indentured servants.
Peace treaty of 1646 repudiated any hope of assimilating natives into Virginian society or peaceful coexistence.
Effectively banished Chesapeake Indians from ancestral lands and created the origins of the later reservation system (formally separated Indian from white areas).
By 1669- official census revealed only about 2000 Indians remained in Virginia, maybe 10% of original population.
By 1685- Powhatan peoples extinct. They fell to disease (European maladies), disorganization (lacked unity to make effective opposition to whites), and disposability (served no economic function for the Virginia colonists).
Disrupters of Indian life: disease, trade (Indian-on-Indian violence for arms to hunt skins/pelts for Europeans). But there was creation of a middle ground, where Europeans and Native Americans were compelled to accommodate one another (e.g. take an Indian wife in case of Algonquians-a substantial regional power)
King Charles I dismissed Parliament in 1629, and when recalled in 1640, members were mutinous.
Civil war in the 1640s.
Puritan-soldier Cromwell ruled England for nearly a decade after 1649.
Permitted unusual freedom of worship from start, but Protestants threatened to overwhelm Catholics.
Guaranteed toleration to all Christians, but death penalty for those who denied divinity of Jesus (Jews and atheists, etc.).
By the mid-17th century, England secured claims to several West Indian islands, including Jamaica in 1655.
Sugar formed foundation of West Indies economy, like tobacco in the Chesapeake. BUT- tobacco was a poor man's crop (planted easily, commercially marketable leaves within a year, simple processing) while sugar cane was a rich man's crop (planted extensively=extensive/arduous land clearing, elaborate refining process, need for labor >>> capital-intensive business)
Enormous numbers of African slaves for plantation work- by about 1700, black slaves outnumbered white settlers nearly 4:1.
To control West Indies large and potentially restive slave population, English authorities devised formal "codes" to define slaves' legal status and master's prerogatives.
Denied even most fundamental rights, gave masters virtually complete control over laborers, including right to inflict vicious punishment for even slight infractions.
Expanse of wilderness granted to eight of Charles II's court favorites.
Hoped to grow foodstuffs to provision sugar plantations in Barbados and to export non-English products like wine, silk, and olive oil.
Prospered by developing close economic ties with English West Indian sugar islands. Many original Carolina settlers emigrated from Barbados, bringing the slave system.
Enlisted Savannah Indians for aid in searching for captives for slave trade. Indian slaves soon among Carolina's major exports.
Rice emerged as principal export crop. African slaves were ideal laborers on rice plantations (agricultural skill and relative immunity to malaria). Constituted majority of Carolinians by 1710.
Charles Town soon became busiest seaport in the South. Rich aristocratic flavor, colorfully diverse community, religious toleration.
Catholic Spaniards in nearby Florida resented Protestant intrustion. Carolina/Florida frontier often aflame- Anglo-Spanish wars.
Savannah Indians decided to end Carolinian alliance and to migrate to Pennsylvania where there were better white-Indian relations.
Carolinians decided to "thin" them. A series of bloody raids near annihilated the coastal Carolinian Indian tribes by 1710.
Tuscarora Indians attacked the fledgling Newbern settlement. Aided by southern Carolinians, North Carolinians crushed them in battle, selling hundreds into slavery and leaving survivors to wander north to seek Iroquois protection (became 6th nation of the Iroquois Confederacy).
Poverty-stricken outcasts and religious dissenters came from Virginia to Carolina. Often "squatters" without legal right to soil, raised tobacco and other crops on small, slave-less farms. These North Carolinians were "the quintessence of Virginia's discontent."
Distinctive traits of these inhabitants: irreligious, hospitable to pirates, resistance to authority. Their location between aristocratic Virginia and South Carolina was " a vale of humility between two mountains of conceit."
Following friction with governors, North Carolina broke off from South, and both became royal colonies.
North Carolina was similar to Rhode Island- both were the most democratic, the most independent-minded, and the least aristocratic of the original 13 colonies.
Virtually all coastal Indian tribes in the southern colonies utterly devastated by about 1720.
But in Appalachian Mountains, Cherokees, Creeks, and Iroquois remained to contain British settlement to the east for half a century more.
Last of the 13 colonies to be planted.
Chiefly intended as a buffer to protect more valuable Carolinas against Spanish Florida and French Louisiana.
As a vital link in imperial defense, it received monetary subsidies from British government at the outset (only one of the 13).
Launched by philanthropists. They wanted to protect neighboring colonies, produce silk and wine, and create a haven for debtors. They also wanted to keep slavery out, at first.
Founder soldier-statesman James Oglethorpe was also interested in prison reform. He repelled Spanish attacks and saved "the Charity Colony" by energetic leadership and mortgaging of his own personal fortune.
Savannah, Georgia was a melting-pot community (German Lutherans, Scots Highlanders). All Christian worshippers except Catholics had religious toleration. Many missionaries came to work, including John Wesley who returned to England and founded the Methodist Church.
Grew slowly because of unhealthful climate, restrictions on black slavery, and demoralizing Spanish attacks.
Emphasis on religious devotion.
English religious reformers who wanted to undertake a total purification English Christianity. Many came from commercially depressed woolen districts. Calvinism provided spiritual comfort. They were called Separatists (wanted to break away entirely from the Church of England because they had to associate with the "damned").
James I (1603-1625) threatened to harass the more bothersome Separatists out of England.
At first they fled to Holland in 1608, but they were repelled by the 'Dutchification' of their children.
They then negotiated with the Virginia Company to secure rights to settle under it, but the Mayflower missed its destination and arrived off the coast of New England. Fewer than half of the group were Separatists.
One of the others was Captain Myles Standish, who later was indispensable as an Indian fighter and negotiator.
They chose Plymouth Bay after a number of surveys, and become squatters as this was not within the domain of the Virginia Company.
They drew and signed the Mayflower Compact (precedent for later written constitutions)- to form a crude government and submit to the will of the majority under the regulations.
First winter, only 44 of 102 survived.
Next autumn 1621, first Thanksgiving with bountiful harvests. Prospered in fur, fish, and lumber.
Prominent leaders: William Bradford (governor 30 times)
MIDDLE COLONIES (New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania): fertile soil, broad expanse of land, 'bread colonies' (PA, NY, NJ), rivers (fur trade), industry (lumbering, shipbuilding, commerce, seaports), landholding intermediate in size, government between town meeting and county government, intermediate number of industries. Also more ethnically mixed, unusual degree of religion toleration, democratic control. Easier to acquire desirable land.
Aim: quick-profit fur trade
Only a secondary interest of the Dutch West India Company.
Bought Manhattan Island from the Indians for trinkets.
New Amsterdam (later NYC) was a company town run in the interests of the stockholders. No religious toleration, free speech, or democratic practices. Governors were harsh and despotic.
Patroonships (vast feudal estates) were granted to promoters who promised to settle 50 people on them. Cosmopolitan population.
Directors-general largely incompetent, shareholders demanded dividends at expense of welfare, Indian massacres...
1629: Non-Separatist Puritans secure royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company.
They established a settlement in the area, with Boston as its hub. They denied that they wanted to separate from Church of England, only from impurities.
Well-equipped expedition in 1630 started it off well. Many prosperous, educated persons immigrated to Bay Colony, including John Winthrop (first governor). Fur trade, fishing, shipbuilding flourished. Biggest and most influential of New England outposts.
Also a shared sense of purpose: "We shall be as a city upon a hill" (John Winthrop).
Congregational Church: Puritan males. Unchurched men remained voteless, women too, but 2/5 had influence, more than in England.
Town governments: all male property holders could discuss public issues, and voting.
Winthrop feared/distrusted democracy as "meanest and worst" form of government.
All paid taxes for the government-supported church.
Religious leaders wielded enormous influence, e.g. John Cotton. But not absolute- congregation had right to hire and fire minister, set salary, clergymen were barred from political office, etc... Somewhat endorsed separation of church and state.
Hartford was founded in 1635.
Another flourishing Connecticut settlement began to spring up at New Haven in 1638. It was a prosperous community, founded by Puritans who contrived to set up an even closer church-government alliance than in Massachusetts. Although only squatters without a charter, the colonists dreamed of making New Haven a bustling
He was an extreme Separatist who challenged the legality of the Bay Colony's charter, claiming it expropriated the land from the Indians without fair compensation. He denied the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior (sedition).
Found guilty of disseminating "newe & dangerous opinions" and banished.
He fled and built a Baptist church at Providence, Rhode Island, establishing complete freedom of religion. Simple manhood suffrage from the start (though later narrowed by property qualification).
Rhode Island became dotted with other malcontent settlements. It became individualistic and independent, and finally secured a charter from Parliament in 1644.
virtually annihilated the Pequot tribe, and inaugurated four decades of uneasy peace between Puritans and Indians
Anne Hutchinson claimed that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man.
She boasted that she had come by her beliefs through a direct revelation from God.
High heresy- she was banished, and set out for Rhode Island, where all but one of her household were killed by Indians.
In effect a modern constitution, which established a regime democratically controlled by the “substantial” citizens. Essential features of the Fundamental Orders were later borrowed by Connecticut for its colonial charter and ultimately for its state constitution.
Strained interpretation of the Massachusetts Charter.
Later separated by the king in 1979.
Primary purpose: defense against foes or potential foes, notably Indians, French, Dutch.
Also included purely intercolonial problems such as runaway servants, fleeing criminals.
Each colony= 2 votes.
"Exclusive Puritan club" including: 2 Massachusetts colonies, two Connecticut colonies.
Swedes trespassed on Dutch territory from 1638 to 1655 by planting New Sweden on the Delaware.
In 1655, Peter Stuyvesant (director-general) led a small military expedition that conquered the main fort after a bloodless siege.
The colonists were absorbed by New Netherland.
New Haven fell into disfavor with Charles II as a result of having sheltered two of the judges who had condemned his father, Charles I, to death.
The crown granted a charter to Connecticut that merged New Haven with the more democratic settlements in the Connecticut Valley
1662: Charles II gave rival Connecticut a sea-to-sea charter grant, which legalized the squatter settlements.
1663: the outcasts in Rhode Island received a new charter, which gave kingly sanction to the most religiously tolerant government yet devised in America.
1684: its charter was revoked by the London authorities.
Charles II granted the area to his brother, the Duke of York.
A squadron was dispatched and the area was conquered without a shot.
Retained an autocratic spirit, and aristocratic element.
Monopolistic land policies discouraged immigration.
Combined in 1702 in royal colony.
Massasoit's son forged an alliance and mounted a series of coordinated assaults on English villages throughout New England. Defeated.
The war slowed the westward march of English settlement in New England for several decades. But New England's Indians thereafter posed only sporadic threats.
William Penn, a Quaker, secured a grant of fertile land from the king and welcomed manual workers, etc. His liberal land policy attracted many immigrants.
He bought land from the Indians. He treated them very fairly, but later on Quaker tolerance of European immigrants undermined the benevolent Indian policy.
Representative assembly elected by the landowners. Freedom of worship but (under pressure from London) Catholics and Jews were denied suffrage and office. Death penalty was only for treason and murder.
Imposed from London.
At first all New England, 2 years later included New York, East/West Jersey.
Aimed at bolstering colonial defense in event of war with Indians and promote efficiency in the administration of the English Navigation Laws, which sought to stitch England's overseas possessions more tightly to motherland by throttling American foreign trade.
Sir Edmund Andros headed the Dominion. He generated hostility by his open affiliation with the Church of England (in Puritanical Boston). He ruthlessly curbed town meetings, laid restrictions on the courts, press, and schools, and revoked all land titles. He taxed people without consent and strove to enforce the Navigation Laws and to suppress smuggling.
This all collapsed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689.
Inaugurated a period of "salutary neglect" with relaxed royal grip on colonial trade- Navigation Laws only weakly enforced.
But more English officials were in America.
granted limited toleration to French Protestants in France
Samuel de Champlain, soldier and explorer, established a presence on the St. Lawrence river.
He entered into friendly relations with the nearby Huron Indian tribes and joined them in battle against the Iroquois.
The French earned the lasting enmity of the Iroquois.
After several failures, the government of New France (Canada) fell under the king's direct control. There were no representative assemblies or trial by jury.
He took a deep interest in overseas colonies.
Beginning in Virginia in 1662, statutes appeared that formally decreed the conditions of slavery. These "slave codes" made blacks and their children property of their white masters for life. Some also made it a crime to teach a slave to read or write.
Blacks in the Chesapeake region had it easier. Tobacco was a less physically demanding crop than those of the south. Plantations were larger and closer to one another, permitting more frequent contact with friends and relatives.
Slave culture evolved, and the slave population became one of the few slave societies in history to perpetuate itself through natural reproduction.
Dampening religious zeal alarmed the church, as Puritans were dispersed onto outlying farms far from the control of church and neighbor.
A new type of sermon was heard, the "jeremiad," during which preachers scolded parishioners for their waning piety.
There was an apparent decline in conversions. Ministers in 1662 thus announced a new formula for church membership.
It allowed unconverted children of existing members to be baptized, but not to participate in "full communion." It weakened the distinction between the "elect" and others, diluting the spiritual purity of the original community.
As time went on, churches opened to all comers, whether converted or not. Strict religious purity was sacrificed to the cause of wider participation. Women were from this time on in the majority in Puritan congregations.
Footloose, impoverished freemen, discontented.
1970 Virginia assembly disfranchised most of the landless freemen.
About a thousand Virginians rebelled, led by Nathaniel Bacon, a 29-year-old planter. Many were frontiersmen forced into the backcountry in search of arable land. They resented Governor William Berkeley's friendly Indian policies. They fought back when Berkeley refused to retaliate for a series of savage Indian raids on frontier settlements.
They fell upon friendly and hostile Indians, chased Berkeley from Jamestown, and set it on fire. During the civil war, Bacon suddenly died of disease. Berkeley crushed the uprising with brutal cruelty.
This uprising ignited fear because there were constant tensions between the planters and the gentry of the plantations.
French- Robert de la Salle down Mississippi River in 1682 to claim Louisiana.
Returned 3 years later but he couldn't find the Mississippi delta and was murdered by mutinous men.
Animosity between landholders and merchants.
Mostly British colonists against French coureurs de bois (runners of the woods), both sides with Indian allies.
Neither side thought America worth many troops, so guerrilla warfare.
Linked to Queen Anne's War.
A group of teenage girls claimed to have been bewitched by older women. The witch hunt that followed lead to the legal lynching in 1692 of twenty people.
This came from not only from the superstitions and prejudices of the time but also from the social and religious conditions of the village. Accused witches came mostly from families associated with the flourishing market economy, while accusers were largely from subsistence farming families.
This reflected the widening social stratification of New England, as well as the fear that Puritan heritage was being eclipsed by Yankee commercialism.
Americans rushed to join the slave trade, and the supply rose.
Blacks accounted for nearly half of Virginia by 1750. In South Carolina, they outnumbered whites 2:1.
Captured by African coastal tribes, then traded to European/American flesh merchants, they were herded onto ships for the "middle passage." Survivors were then auctioned in New World ports.
To thwart English settlers pushing into Ohio Valley.
Mostly British colonists against French coureurs de bois (runners of the woods), both sides with Indian allies.
Neither side thought America worth many troops, so guerrilla warfare.
Peace terms at Utrecht in 1713: Britain rewarded with French Acadia (renamed Nova Scotia), Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay.
Won limited trading rights in Spanish America.
Start of decades of "salutary neglect."
Commanded mouth of Mississippi River, tapped fur trade of interior valley.
Forts and trade posts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes
Parliament passes the Molasses Act, pressured by British Wes Indies in an attempt to stop North American trade with the French West Indies.
American merchants responded by bribing and smuggling. Foreshadowed the impending imperial crisis of revolt rather than submission.
John Peter Zenger in New York:
Zenger's newspaper had assailed the corrupt royal governor. Zenger was then charged with seditious libel and hauled into court,
Andrew Hamilton, a former indentured servant, argued that "the very liberty of both exposing and opposing arbitrary power" was at stake.
Verdict of not guilty. Banner achievement for freedom of the press and for the health of democracy.
1730s and 1740s
First ignited in Northampton, Massachusetts, by pastor Jonathan Edwards. He detailed the landscape of hell and the eternal torments of the damned.
In 1738, George Whitefield used a different style of preaching and touched off a religious revolution. He preached human helplessness and divine omnipotence. His revival meetings saw much religious excitation.
Orthodox clergymen ("old lights") were skeptical of the emotionalism and theatrics of the revivalists. "New light" ministers defended the Awakening for revitalizing American religion.
Congregationalists and Presbyterians split over the issue, and many went over to other sects more prepared for emotion in religion.
It led to the founding of "new light" centers of higher learning, e.g. Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth.
The first spontaneous mass movement of the American people.
Treaty of 1713 had granted limited trading rights in Spanish America, but British captain Jenkins had one ear sliced off with a sword by Spanish revenue authorities.
This war was between the British and the Spaniards, confined to the Caribbean Sea and Georgia, the buffer colony.
Later merged with War of Austrian Succession (King George's War) in 1740. Again, France allied with Spain, and again, New Englanders invaded New France. With help from a British fleet and luck, the recruits captured the French fort of Louisbourg, which commanded the St. Lawrence River.
The peace treaty of 1748 handed the fort back to the French, who remained strong.
Started undeclared by George Washington in 1754, Ohio Valley. Declared in 1756.
Europe: Britain/Prussia vs. France/Spain/Austria/Russia
Bloodiest theater: Germany. France wasted so much strength here that they were unable to throw an adequate force in the New World.
In 1754, the British government summoned an intercolonial congress to Albany, New York. Only 7/13 colonies were represented. The immediate purpose was to keep the Iroquois loyal; the long-term, to achieve greater colonial unity (thus bolstering the common defense against France).
Benjamin Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette cartoon of a disjointed snake broadcast the slogan "Join, or Die."
His scheme for colonial home rule was adopted by the Albany congress but not by individual colonies or London.
General Braddock in 1755 to capture Fort Duquesne. Failure prompted Indian raids.
Failed British invasion of Canada in 1756.
In 1749, a group of British colonial speculators (chiefly influential Virginians, including the Washington family) had secured shaky legal "rights" to some 500,000 acres in the contentious area of the upper Ohio Valley.
In 1754, the governor of Virginia sent George Washington as a lieutenant colonel in command of about 150 Virginia militiamen to the Ohio country. They encountered a small number of French troops, about 40 miles from Fort Duquesne (the French fort at the Monongahela-Allegheny junction; where they form the Ohio). The French leader was killed, and his men retreated. However, reinforcements came and Washington was forced to surrender his entire command on July 4th, 1754.
In 1755, the British uprooted some 4000 of the French Acadians and scattered them as far south as Louisiana, for fear of rebellion.
The "Great Commoner," "Organizer of Victory"- decided to concentrate on Canada's vitals (Quebec-Montreal area).
He picked young, energetic leaders.
First dispatched an expedition in 1758 against Louisbourg- first significant British victory.
Chose James Wolfe to lead the assault on Quebec. The assault succeeded, though both sides' commanders were fatally wounded. This Battle of Quebec in 1759 was one of the most significant engagements in British and American history.
This Battle of Quebec in 1759 was one of the most significant engagements in British and American history.
When Montreal fell in 1760, the French lost control of Canada for good. By the Peace of Paris (1763), French power was thrown completely off the continent.
Prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians.
Designed to work out the Indian problem fairly and prevent another Pontiac's uprising.
Americans dismayed and angered. They defied the proclamation.
Ottawa chief Pontiac led several tribes in a violent campaign to drive the British out of Ohio country.
They besieged Detroit in 1763's spring and eventually overran all but 3 British posts west of Appalachians, killing some 2000 soldiers and settlers.
British waged a primitive biological warfare (blankets infected with smallpox) and crushed the uprising. Pontiac died in 1769 at the hands of a rival chieftain.
The French had to compensate Spain by ceding all of trans-Mississippi Louisiana as well as New Orleans. Spain turned Florida over to Britain in return for Cuba.
Great Britain thus emerged as the dominant power in North America and the leading naval power of the world.
Scots-Irish protesting the Quaker oligarchy's lenient Indian policy