The Hundred Years' War, a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453, pitted the Kingdom of England against the Valois Capetians for control of the French throne. Each side drew many allies into the fighting.
The war had its roots in a dynastic disagreement dating back to the time of William the Conqueror, who became King of England in 1066 while retaining possession of the Duchy of Normandy in France. As the rulers of Normandy and other lands on the continent, the English kings owed feudal homage to the King of France. In 1337, Edward III of England refused to pay homage to Philip VI of France, leading the French King to claim confiscation of Edward's lands in Aquitaine.
Fight between the Yorks and Lancasters over the English throne
Henry Tudor (Lancaster) won and started the Tudor dynasty.
Divided the New World and Asia between Spain and Portugal; enacted by a Spanish pope
The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire. Originally arising from dynastic disputes over the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples, the wars rapidly became a general struggle for power and territory among their various participants, and were marked with an increasing number of alliances, counter-alliances, and betrayals.
Schmalkaldic League was an alliance of Lutheran German princes against Charles V
War ended in a truce. Peace of Augsberg- rulers of a German region can choose Catholicism of Lutheranism for their region.
Charles was winning at first, but the Henry II of France supported the princes.
Nobles, towns and provinces are trying to resist centralization
Edict of Nantes clarified the religious situation with the Huguenots
The Eighty Years' War, or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648), began as a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces. However, under the leadership of the exiled William of Orange, the northern provinces continued their resistance and managed to oust the Habsburg armies and, in 1581, established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The war continued in other areas, although the heartland of the republic was no longer threatened. The war ended in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, when the Dutch Republic was recognised as an independent country.
The Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared. The war was punctuated by widely separated battles, and began with England's military expedition in 1585 to the Netherlands under the command of the Earl of Leicester in support of the resistance of the States General to Habsburg rule.
The English enjoyed major victories at Cádiz in 1587, and over the Spanish Armada in 1588, but gradually lost the initiative after the severe defeats of the English Armada in 1589 and the Drake-Hawkins and Essex-Raleigh expeditions in 1595 and 1597 respectively. Two further Spanish armadas were sent in 1596 and 1597 but were frustrated in their objectives because of adverse weather.
The war became deadlocked around the turn of the 17th century during campaigns in Brittany and Ireland. It was brought to an end with the Treaty of London, negotiated in 1604 between representatives of the new king of Spain, Philip III, and the new king of England, James I. England and Spain agreed to cease their military interventions in the Spanish Netherlands and Ireland, respectively, and the English ended high seas privateering.
France felt surrounded by the Hapsburgs.
Spain wanted to recapture the Netherlands.
Hapsburgs wanted to get rid of protestants and centralize authority.
Immediate cause: Defenestration of Prague
Treaty of Westphalia- German rulers can choose Calvinism, and winning countries gain land.
Charles needed money to put down Scots revolt, but needed money so he had to call Parliament
Radicals won, king was executed and Oliver Cromwell set up a military dictatorship, with himself as Lord Protector
Louis XIV wanted “natural frontiers”
After 2 wars, France gained very few land (Franche Comte)
ended war between Spain and France that had continued as an extension of the Thirty Years War
Louis annexed Alsace-Lorraine, and Stasburg, so other countries formed the League of Augsburg
Treaty of Ryswick- France lost most of its land, but kept Stasbourg and parts of Alace
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter the Great of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony-Poland-Lithuania. Frederick IV and Augustus II were forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709. George I of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) joined the coalition in 1714 for Hanover and in 1717 for Britain, and Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia joined it in 1715.
Spanish ruler left the throne of Spain to Louis XIV’s grandson. Other countries feared a coalition of Spain and France would ruin the balance of power in Europe.
Peace of Utrecht and Treaty of Rastaat- Philip became the ruler of Spain, but the thrones of France and Spain could never unite. Prussia gained respect, and England gained a lot of land (Gibralter and America).
Prussia seized Silesia from Austria (Maria Theresa), defying the Pragmatic Sanction
Treaty of Aix la Chapelle- status quo except Prussia kept Silesia
Ended the war of the Austrian Succession
Treaty of Hubertsburg- status quo and Prussia kept Silesia
Treaty of Paris- France lost its N. American possessions to Britain
Switch sides- Austria and France were allies in this war
Russia was allied with Austria (and they were winning) but then switched sides
ended the Seven Years War
The Russo-Swedish War of 1788–90, known as Gustav III's Russian War in Sweden, Gustav III's War in Finland and Catherine II's Swedish War in Russia, was fought between Sweden and Russia from June 1788 to August 1790.
Third Estate promised to meet until they make a new constitution for France
Monetary problems à calling the estates general
Thermador Reaction, Directory
Louis XVI, Robespierre, Danton, Jacobins, Gironde, Mountain,
Storming the Bastille, women’s march to Versailles, Tennis Court Oath, National Assembly, Legislative Assembly, National Convention, Paris Commune, Committee of Public Safety, Reign of Terror
Napoleon wanted to expand the French Empire and rule over more territory
Napoleon’s final defeat at Waterloo. Congress of Vienna- balance of power, legitimacy, conservatism, created the Concert of Europe.
Creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, Duchy of Warsaw. When Napoleon conquered an area, he would proclaim French Revolutionary ideals
King Charles X issued the July ordinances, which limited the power of the people and increased the power of the king and aristocrats à July Revolution
Louis Philippe became king and promised to abide by the 1814 constitution
Occurred in France, Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire was weak and the powers wanted to see what they could take. Immediate- Russia wanted to protect Christians in Palestine, but France had that right already
Suffering and death (Florence Nightingale)
Russia gave up land and control of the Black Sea, and realized they needed to modernize
France gained prestige
Ended the Concert of Europe
ended Franco-Prussian War; forced France to create 3rd Republic to ratify it
The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden; and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.
Establishment of the Duma
Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece, who organized a Balkan League to defeat the Ottomans
Received provinces of Macedonia and Albania
The Balkan League could not decide on how to divide the conquered Ottoman provinces of Macedonia and Albania à Greece, Serbia, Romania, and the OE attacked Bulgaria
Bulgaria only obtained a small part of Macedonia, and the remainder was divided between Serbia and Greece
MANIA: Militarism, Alliances, Nationalism, Imperialism, and Assassination
Czar Nicolas II is killed and provisional government established
The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, come to power in Russia: Peace, Land, and Bread
Promised Jewish homeland
Russia out of the war so that Communists can consolidate power; Russia loses lots of territory
European great powers pledge their support of international peace through negotiations and no hard feelings over First World War – “spirit of Locarno”
Amends the Treaty of Rome and Treaty of Maastricht
Resolved the Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy (Great Schism)
Consisted of a Grand Inquisitor, who headed the Council of the Supreme and General Inquisition, made up of six members. Under it were up to 21 tribunals in the empire.
Queen Isabella of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon take Spain back from the Muslims
Called for Martin Luther to answer to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Outlined the Catholic Church's position in regard to the Reformation. It stated that Catholic doctrine would remain the same, but reforms would be made in Church practices.
Reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War
German nationalists got together and unsuccessfully try to unify Germany; “Windbag Assembly”
Czar Alexander II frees the serfs but burdens them in debt
Italy unified, except for the Papal States
Pope joins unified Italy
Bismarck fought three wars to isolate Austria and France and gain territory to create a unified Germany
A unified Germany was created
Bismarck-led meeting over Balkans issues – showed problems between Great Powers that would resurface and lead to WWI
Bismarck is the “honest broker” again – solve African imperial problems, esp. Belgian Congo
Big Three meet about 2nd front in France & Eastern Europe after the war
Stalin, Atlee & Truman – Stalin reneges on promises, Truman atomic bombs Japan
Big Three meet about postwar Europe, UN and Japan
Created modern Catholicism. Mass said in Vernacular, collegiality with other religions, etc.
Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican friar and priest and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived in development or refutation of his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory. Unlike many currents in the Church of the time, Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle — whom he referred to as "the Philosopher" — and attempted to synthethise Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity.
Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. He is the Father of Humanism
Charles VI, called the Beloved and the Mad, was King of France from 1380 to his death. He was a member of the House of Valois. Charles VI was only 11 when he inherited the throne in the midst of the Hundred Years' War
Jan Hus, often referred to in English as John Hus or John Huss, was a Czech priest, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague. His followers were referred to as the Hussites
Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for his development of linear perspective and for engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral
Lorenzo Ghiberti, born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was a Florentine Italian artist of the Early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Baptistry of Florence Cathedral, called by Michelangelo the "Gates of Paradise".
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, better known as Donatello, was an early Renaissance Italian sculptor from Florence
Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici was the first of the Medici political dynasty, de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance; also known as "Cosimo 'the Elder'" and "Cosimo Pater Patriae".
Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and is generally considered one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century. The few surviving records indicate that he was born around 1390, most likely in Maaseik.
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.
Louis XI, called the Prudent, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1461 to 1483. He succeeded his father Charles VII.
Pope Alexander VI, born Roderic Llançol i de Borja was Pope from 11 August 1492 to his death on 18 August 1503. Father of Lucrezia Borgia and Cesare Borgia. He used his daughter as a political pawn
Pope Julius II, nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope", born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513. Notice that he chose to take the name Julius (like the Roman Emperor), exemplifying the secularity of the Papacy during the Renaissance
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
Lorenzo de' Medici was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer.
Girolamo Savonarola was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence, and known for his prophecies of civic glory and calls for Christian renewal. His rejection of neoplatonism very influential on Botticelli
Henry VII was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor. He ended the War of the Roses by marrying Elizabeth of York.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, or simply Erasmus, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance.
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a heliocentric model of the universe which placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center.
Thomas Wolsey was an English political figure and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509, Wolsey became an advisor to the King.
Isabella d'Este was Marchesa of Mantua and one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance as a major cultural and political figure.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal. He was the son of Pope Alexander VI and his long-term mistress Vannozza dei Cattanei.
Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. The second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of the Florentine Republic, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489.
Pope Clement VII, born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was Pope from 19 November 1523 to his death in 1534. He was pope when Charles V sacked Rome and while Martin Luther rose to prominence.
Baldassare Castiglione, count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, better known simply as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
Martin Luther OSA was a German monk, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the 16th-century movement in Christianity known later as the Protestant Reformation.
Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. In 1518, Zwingli became the pastor of the Grossmünster in Zurich where he began to preach ideas on reforming the Catholic Church.
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, KG, was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540. Cromwell was one of the strongest advocates of the English Reformation.
Catherine of Aragon was Queen of England from 1509 until 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Prince Arthur.
Thomas Cranmer was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I.
Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish knight from a local Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus and, on 19 April 1541, became its first Superior General.
Hans Holbein the Younger was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style. He is best known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century
Charles V was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556. His mother was Joanna the Mad
Anne Boleyn was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII and Marquess of Pembroke in her own right.
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel or Ferdinandus Toletanus Dux Albanus, known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and the Iron Duke in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble, general, and diplomat.
John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism.
John Knox was a Scottish clergyman and a leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination in Scotland. He hated Mary, Queen of Scots.
Andreas Vesalius was a Brabantian anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica. Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy.
Henry II was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.
Catherine de' Medici, daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and of Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry II.
Philip II was King of Spain from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581. From 1554 he was King of Naples and Sicily as well as Duke of Milan. During his marriage to Queen Mary I, he was also King of England and Ireland.
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.
Elizabeth I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called "The Virgin Queen", "Gloriana" or "Good Queen Bess", Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580.
Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, was queen regnant of Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567 and queen consort of France from 10 July 1559 to 5 December 1560.
Tycho Brahe, born Tyge Ottesen Brahe, was a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. He was born in Scania, then part of Denmark, now part of modern-day Sweden.
Henry IV, also known by the epithet "Good King Henry", was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon.
Baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, he barely escaped assassination at the time of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, and he later led Protestant forces against the royal army.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St. Alban, QC, was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist, and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England.
Galileo Galilei, often known mononymously as Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution.
Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion. He worked under Tycho Brahe
William Harvey was an English physician. He was the first to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart, though earlier writers had provided precursors of the theory.
Ferdinand II, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, and King of Hungary. His rule coincided with the Thirty Years' War.
René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician and writer who spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic.
Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen
Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Pierre Bayle was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1695.
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC, known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Age of Enlightenment.
François-Marie Arouet was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.
Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin has been referred to as one of the leading female figures in the French Enlightenment. From 1750–1777, Madame Geoffrin played host to many of the most influential Philosophes and Encyclopédistes of her time.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought.
Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment, and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Paul Heinrich Dietrich, Baron d'Holbach was a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and a prominent figure in the French Enlightenment. He was born Paul Heinrich Dietrich in Edesheim, near Landau in the Rhenish Palatinate, but lived and worked mainly in Paris, where he kept a salon. He was well known for his atheism and for his voluminous writings against religion, the most famous of them being The System of Nature (1770).
Adam Smith was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Smith is cited as the "father of modern economics" and is still among the most influential thinkers in the field of economics today
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that human concepts and categories structure our view of the world and its laws, and that reason is the source of morality.
Sir Richard Arkwright was a self-made man and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution.
James Watt, FRS, FRSE was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana was an Italian jurist, philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work in the field of penology and the Classical School of criminology. He promoted criminal justice.
Henry Cort was an English ironmaster. During the Industrial Revolution in England, Cort began refining iron from pig iron to wrought iron using innovative production systems. In 1783 he patented the puddling process for refining iron ore.
Edmund Cartwright was an English inventor. He graduated from Oxford University very early and went on to invent the power loom.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood.
The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus FRS was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus himself used only his middle name Robert.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha was a commander in the Ottoman army, who became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottoman's temporary approval.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism.
Robert Owen was a Welsh social reformer and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.
David Ricardo was a British political economist. He was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith, and James Mill. He began his professional life as a broker and financial market speculator.
Andrew Ure was a Scottish doctor, scholar, chemist. and early business theorist.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS, was a British Conservative politician, writer and aristocrat who twice served as Prime Minister.
William Ewart Gladstone, was a British Liberal politician. In a career lasting over sixty years, he served as Prime Minister four separate times, more than any other person.
Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's most memorable fictional characters and is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period.
Sir Henry Bessemer was an English engineer, inventor, and businessman. Bessemer's name is chiefly known in connection with the Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel.
David Livingstone was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and an explorer in Africa. His meeting with H. M. Stanley on 10 November 1871 gave rise to the popular quotation "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Perhaps one of the most popular national heroes of the late 19th century in Victorian Britain, Livingstone had a mythic status, which operated on a number of interconnected levels: Protestant missionary martyr, working-class "rags to riches" inspirational story, scientific investigator and explorer, imperial reformer, anti-slavery crusader, and advocate of commercial empire.
Queen Victoria was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Friedrich Engels was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx.
Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger, better known as Paul Kruger, and affectionately known as Uncle Paul, was State President of the South African Republic.
Jules François Camille Ferry was a French statesman and republican. He was a promoter of laicism and colonial expansion. He promoted education.
Leopold II was the second King of the Belgians, and is chiefly remembered for the founding and exploitation of the Congo Free State.
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau was a French statesman who led the nation in the First World War. A leader of the Radical Party, he played a central role in politics during the Third Republic.
Alexander III, or Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov was Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Prince of Finland from 13 March [O.S. 1 March] 1881 until his death on 20 October [O.S. 8 October] 1894.
The Rt Hon Cecil John Rhodes DCL was a British businessman, mining magnate, and politician in South Africa. Rhodes was named the chairman of De Beers at the company's founding in 1888.
He was the viceroy of India
Crowned in 1888, he dismissed the Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 and launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led to the First World War. He was militaristic and wanted Germany to have "its place in the sun."
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM PC was a British Liberal politician and statesman. Prime Minister of Great Britain during the First World War
Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He is chiefly remembered for his tales and poems of British soldiers in India and his tales for children.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain FRS was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940. He let Hitler have Czechoslovakia with the policy of appeasement.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, DL, FRS, RA was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. He was one of the Big Three during WWII
Joseph Stalin or Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin, was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. He killed lots of people.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB, FBA was a British economist whose ideas have fundamentally affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, and informed the economic policies of governments.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943.
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party. He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II. He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first president from 1959 to 1969.
Marshal Josip Broz Tito was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde was the dictator of Spain from 1939 to his death in 1975. Coming from a military background, he became the youngest general in Europe in the 1920s
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War.
Krushchev "krushed" the Hungarians.
Imre Nagy was a Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary on two occasions.
Paul Joseph Goebbels was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982. He enacted the Brezhnev Doctrine, which states that the Soviet Union will intervene in the affairs of the countries Eastern Europe if they stray from Communism.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand was the 21st President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra, serving from 1981 until 1995.
Nicolae Ceaușescu was a Romanian communist politician. He was General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, and as such was the country's second and last Communist leader.
Alexander Dubček was a Slovak politician and, briefly, leader of Czechoslovakia. He attempted to reform the communist regime during the Prague Spring.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG OM PC FRS, was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the UK's first female Prime Minister and a contemporary of US President Ronald Reagan.
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl is a German conservative politician and statesman. He served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union from 1973 to 1998. He oversaw the reunification of Germany after the fall of the Berlin Wall
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman. He was the seventh and last undisputed leader of the Soviet Union, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the country's head of state from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991. He was the only general secretary in the history of the Soviet Union to have been born after the October Revolution.
Jacques René Chirac is a French politician who served as President of France from 1995 to 2007. He previously served as Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976 and from 1986 to 1988 (making him the only person to hold the position of Prime Minister twice under the Fifth Republic), and as Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995.
Sir John Major, KG, CH is a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
Lech Wałęsa is a Polish politician, trade-union organizer, philanthropist and human-rights activist. He was the leader of Solidarity.