The Ottoman Empire began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks. It lasted from 1299 to 1923 and became one of the largest and longest-lasting empires in history. Its capital city was Constantinople (present-day Istanbul, Turkey). In the 16th and 17th centuries it encompassed three continents and 43 modern-day countries. Sultan was the supreme ruler although power was passed to lower officials and power could be earned, not just inherited (rule was not a monarchy.) The Ottoman empire's success was based on energetic, foward-thinking rulers who at one time were at the forefront of military technology and adopted math and science ideas from other societies, and besides conquests, capitalized on staying ahead and educated on new technologies. In the end, their empire came to an end for that reason- sultan's became greedy and corrupt and no longer stayed up to date on technologies- the Ottomans quickly fell behind and after WW1 the defeat of the Central Powers meant the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ming dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644. For nearly 100 years before that, China had been ruled by the Mongols. In the 1300's a group called the Red Turbans attacked the Mongols and began a rebellion that overthrew the Mongols/ the Yuan dynasty they had left in China. The leader of the rebellion and the first emperor of the established Ming dynasty was Zhu Yuanzhang, or Hongwu. During the Ming dynasty, emperors ruled in the Forbidden City, and worked to make China great again- make infrastructure projects like the Great Wall to keep out further attacks, the canal system to stimulate trade, and encouragement of Chinese cultural traditions and education. During this time, China's population nearly doubled and trade and prosperity flourished, but the dynasty ended when a mix of peasant uprisings, Manchu invasions, and Japanese incursions into Korea weakened the state beyond repair. Manchu took over, began Qing state.
People first began entering Australia and New Guinea over 60,000 years ago over small land bridges created by low sea levels and possibly rafts or crude canoes with sails. Thus they arrived before agriculture even began, and were hunting-foraging people. But about 10,000 years ago, water levels began to rise again and communication between New Guineans and Australians ceased- New Guineans turned to agriculture about 3000 BCE while Australians continued hunter-gatherer societies. They were mobile communities that underwent seasonal migrations for food- included many greens and nuts/ seed but also used lassos, snares, boomerangs, axes, and spears to bring down giant kangaroos to rats/ waterfowl. New Guineans were introduced to ag. by Austronesian seafaring peoples, who had remarkable seafaring skills. As ag. spread, these Austronesian peoples continued father out to populated all the island of the Pacific.
After the conquests by Pizarro and Cortes, they allocated lands to their troops by their own authority. But soon the Spanish monarchy extended its control and sent over lawyers, tax collectors, bureaucrats, and royal officials who implemented royal policy and administration. Established two main centers of authority Mexico (New Spain) and Peru (New Castile), each governed by a viceroy loyal to Spain, who were reviewed by Spanish courts known as audiencias, who gave any negative reviews straight to the Spanish king. But was not a thorough affair: often took two years for a response of correspondence to take place, and even then it wasn't a direct order, and limited transportation limited the viceroys power in the Americas, and other local power fell to the audiencias or town councils. Even though they got income from ag. prod., they preferred to live in cities, and established many- Mexico City, Lima, Buenos Aires, and St. Augustine were some of the earliest.
African kingdom referred to as Angola by the Portuguese (named for the title of kings in the kingdom- ngola.) In this empire the Portuguese established a slave trade in which the Ndongo grew wealthy from the direct trade with them and developed from a small chiefdom to a powerful regional empire. The Portuguese had started setting up a colony there in 1575, and by 1611 increased influence and allied with neighboring peoples who delivered war captives. In the next years, campaigned to establish a colony that would support large-scale slave trade. The Portuguese won, and extended and tightened control over their colony of Angola, the first European colony in sub-Saharan Africa. But most important in this was resistance from Queen Nzinga (r. 1623-1663). Came from a long line of warrior kings and wanted others to see her as a king (traveled with a group of concubines- males dressed as females) and dressed as a man herself. Led spirited resistance and mobilized African peoples but was no match for Portuguese military/ money.
Began by Ismail, a 12-year old who wanted revenge on his family's enemies, had hidden in the swamps of Gilan for five years. When he emerged, but himself a powerful army and claimed title of ancient Persian imperial title of Shah. Seized control of Iranian peninsula, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and central Asia, which was mostly Sunni Muslim, imposed Twelver Shiism, in which he and his successors claimed to be descended from a popular Sufi mystic Safi al-Din (1252-1334) which appealed to Turkish tribes in their empire, and were instructed to wear red hat with 12 pleats in memory of 12 imams (religious leaders after Muhammad who Twelver Shiism was named for.) Red hats- qizilbash. Ended when at a time when shah's were no longer powerful/ innovative and their army was weak, attacked by both Russians and Ottomans who divided up the empire.
The Mughals were an Islamic dynasty that ruled India from 1526 until 1858. This is the empire that created the Taj Mahal (what it is mostly known for) but also for increasing conflict between Hindus and Muslims (exception- reign of Akbar, who was tolerant and actually helped to subside some of the tensions.) Began by a Chaghatai Turk known as Babur ("the tiger") claimed descent from Chinggis Khan and wanted to make a glorious central Asian empire like he had down, but attempts were frustrated and when he died made a loose knit empire in northern India (Mughal- Persian for Mongol.) Akbar was the one of expanded and consolidated Mughal rule, but was also thoughtful. reflective- pursued religious tolerance. Successor Aurangzeb helped empire to reach its height and pushed empire into southern Empire, but was ruthless and unkind, and faced many rebellions that provoked deep hostility among Hindus and Muslims.
Western Europeans were colonizing and building maritime empires while the Russians empire beginning to build a vast land empire that embraced much of northern Eurasia. Began in mid-16th cent. when Russian forces began to take over Mongol khanates in central Asia, which opened new areas and trade opportunities with the Ottomans, Iran, and India through the Caspian Sea. Extended their presence here by absorbing a multi-ethnic region then called the Caucasus, and brought trade into western Europe through the Baltic Sea. Far more extensive was Russia's push into Siberia, started by the Stroganov family in 1591, hired an adventurer to capture the khanate of Sibir. Succeeded and began expeditions into the wilderness in a quest for fur- a luncratice commodity then, and by 1639 had reached eastern Eurasia and the Pacific ocean. Russian explorers also came into contact with the 26 major ethnic groups living there, some who welcomed them, and others who were hostile to the newcomers encroaching on their lands. Disease and violence between the two groups led to decrease in delivery of furs, and Russian government decided to help the "small people"- began a missionary activity to convert the people and bring them into Russian society. Little success and continued to practice shamanism, but the Russian population began migrating there anyways, in order to mine or for a lighter workload found on Siberian plantations, and by 1763, 420,000 Russians lived in Siberia. Russian expansion ended in 1795 with an absorption of eastern Europe and the Kamchatka Peninsula in 1762.
The Spanish East Indies were Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1898. Spanish contact first began in 1521 with the discovery of the islands by Ferdinand Magellan. Word of spices, silk, gold, and silver traveled back to Spain, and soon the Spanish were colonizing islands in the Pacific, first the Philippines in 1565 and then a trading port in Manila in 1570. Trade links were developed between Manila and the viceroy in Mexico, and the Manila-Acapulco Galleons were established, and what was brought to Mexico was then shipped to Spain.
Japan’s Tokugawa (or Edo (named for the city Edo in which Ieyasu made his capital, now Tokyo)) period lasted from 1603 to 1867 and was the final era of traditional Japanese government (feudalism), culture and society before the Meiji Restoration of 1868 toppled the 250 year shogunate (made of a long succession of 15 shogunates) and propelled the country into the modern era. The shogunate was first founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu, who ended the hundreds of years of was Japan had been in (done especially by controlling the daimyo) and created a feudalistic state in which the shogun was at top. These developments led to increased prosperity in Japan, including the rise of a new merchant class and increasing urbanization. To guard against external influence, they also worked to close off Japanese society from Westernizing influences, particularly Christianity. Overall, helped to reunite Japan and stimulate it culturally, but didn't bring Japan ahead into the industrializing world.
During the late Mind dynasty, the empire was falling apart to uprisings by the Han people and invasions by Mongolians from the N. and the Manchus from the NE. Due in part to the Manchu's military prowess and Chinese support for them, the Ming dynasty fell.The Manchus then took over, created the Qing ("pure") dynasty, and set up a capital at Beijing. Many Manchu elites were schooled in Chinese language and Confucian thought, which earned them respect from other Chinese elites, but the Manchus were sure to preserve their own cultural identity- outlawed Manchus and Chinese marriage, forbid Chinese from traveling to Manchuria or learning their culture, and made men were made to grow Manchu-style queue. The empires greatest rulers, Kangxi and his grandson Qianlong, consolidated their hold and expanded the empire, and high point of it came under Qianlong. Although he and his successors continually delegated responsibilities of their eunuchs and began to weaken empire. Emperors in both Ming and Qing dynasties seen as "Sons of Heaven" and governance fell to Scholar- Bureaucrats.
Began by Fernando and Isabel in Spain, they obtained their papal license in order to operate the institution as a royal agency (most distinctive institution that relied on religious justifications to advance interests of the state.) Originally done to root out those who were practicing Islam or Judaism in Spain, Charles V also made it so that it would found those who were doing Protestant heresy, as well as witchcraft. Inquisitors had broad powers to investigate any cases of heresy. Mostly used powers of evidence and released many, but condemned hundreds to hanging, burning at the stake, or locked up in dark cells. Deterred nobles from adopting religious views for political ambition.
William Luther of Wittenburg, a German monk, posed a challenge to the Roman Catholic church. In 1517 he wrote 95 theses on the problems with R. Catholic church and examples of their greed and moral rot. Especially important was the sale of indulgences by the church, in which the unknowing public paid to have their sins taken away in a pardon for their entry into heaven, which first propelled Luther to writing his theses. (As legend has it, he nailed his theses to a church door, which is false. Word got around about his theses and said he would publicly debate anyone about his stance.)
One of two important institutions made for defining the Catholic Reformation- the Council of Trent and the Society of Jesus. Council of Trend was an assembly of bishops, cardinals, other high church officials who met between 1545-1562 to address matters of doctrine, reform, and theology of the Roman Catholic church. Drew heavily on works of St. Thomas Aquinas, and helped to define the elements of Roman Catholicism. Acknowledged that abuses had alienated people from the church, and took steps to reform it. Demanded church officials observe strict standards of morality/ establish schools and seminaries to properly prepare priests for their roles.
The Enlightenment Era was in part spawned from the Scientific Revolution- Newton's vision of the universe was so powerful it extended well beyond the science world and the works of others in that time led to a rational analysis of human behavior that could lead to new insights about the human and the natural world. European and American thinkers launched an ambitious project to transform human though and to use reason to transform the world. Abandoned Aristotelian though, Christian theology, and other trad. recognized authorities for purely rational analysis. Important People- John Locke, Adam Smith, and Baron de Montesquieu all sought to find the natural laws that governed human society. But also important were philosophes, not so much philosophers as they gave their thoughts to the public in the form of literary works. Ex. Voltaire, Deists.
The Scientific Revolution was a great shift in thinking in everything from astronomy to chemistry. Astronomers and physicists in this time rejected old, but widely accepted classical Greek and Roman theories, and began to come up with their own based on direct observation and mathematical reasoning. During the 17th ND 18th centuries, many scientific thinkers elaborated new vision of Earth and the larger universe, and using observation and reasoning, transformed the natural sciences in what is now known as the scientific revolution. Many intellectuals sought to overhaul all old forms of through and adapt them to methods of reason rather than that of cultural authorities- this era greatly weakened the influence of the church in these countries, especially in western Europe. Important People to Know in this time: Ptolemy of Alexandria and his view of the universe, Nicholas Copernicus and his revised view of the universe, Johannes Kelper and Galileo Galilei and their additions to Copernicus's work, as well as Isaac Newton and important woman Emilie du Chatelet who changed women's positions in science.