The United States test the first fusion bomb, "Ivy Mike".
The United States detonates its first deliverable thermonuclear weapon at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. The device had a yield twice as large as expected, leading to the worst radiological disaster in US history.
The United States and the United Kingdom sign the 1958 US-UK Mutual Defence Agreement. This is a bilateral treaty on nuclear weapons cooperation signed after the United Kingdom successfully tested a hydrogen bomb during Operation Grapple.
(Picture of H-Bomb from Operation Grapple)
Soviet Union rejects the Baruch Plan. Main idea of it was to implement control of nuclear power to the extent necessary to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes along with other basic ideas.
The Soviet Union conducts its first test of a hydrogen bomb, nicknamed Joe 4 by the Americans.
Soviet Union detonates the largest most powerful nuclear weapon ever.
The Soviet Union detonates Chagan as part of their Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy series to study the peaceful use of nuclear explosions.
Explorer 1, the first American satellite to reach orbit, is launched. It carried scientific equipment that lead to the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt
Explorer 2 is launced but it fails to reach orbit.
The Vanguard 1 satellite is launched. It continues to function for 3 years.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is formed, it replaces the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA)
Pioneer 1 is launched to a height of 70,700 miles.
Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin become the first men to walk on the Moon while crewmate Michael Collins orbits around the Moon alone.
USSR launches Sputnik 1
USSR launches Sputnik 2 which carried a small dog named Laika into orbit
Luna 1 is launched by the USSR. It is the first man made object to orbit the Sun
Luna 2 is launched. It impacts the Moon on September 13, becoming the first man-made object to do so
Luna 3 orbits the Moon and photographs 70% of its surface.