COASTAL region: extremely dry
Oldest prepared mummies in the world along dry coast of northern Chile and Southern Peru
Black style: stripped, disemboweled, skinned, reassembled, painted black, oval mask
Red style: red paint(clay?), open mouth
From PUNA (High Grassland)region.
---12000 - 1500 ft
Llamas are larger and used for meat, wool, transport,dung, blood (sacrifice), bones
Alpaca are smaller; meat and very high quality wool
HIGHLAND VALLEYS: 9000-12000 ft.
Land often terraced for cold-resistant crops (ie, potatoes and tubers)
Largest empire in the Americas
The Inca: semi-devine ruler and descendant of sun-god Inti
No written script; kept KHIPU, knot records
State-owned maize fields dedicated to gods
Ritual sacrifice (child sacrifice in Capacocha ceremony) to appease pantheon
Extended from Ecuador to Chile
~"Tawantinsuyu"= land of the 4 Quarters
----Chinchansuyu, Cuntinsuyu, Antinsuyu, Collasuyu
CENTER OF EMPIRE: the "Coricancho" site in Cuscu, the Capital city.
Tightly controlled its conquered people in travel,religion,etc.
Forcibly relocated populations.
Mit'a: owed labor to state
Maize: key tribute item
Francisco Pizarro: murdered and plundered Inka Empire for riches
-Guilá Naquitz Cave, Oaxaca, Mexico
-development of ceramic figurines: acrobats, twin motifs
-committed to agriculture
~Paso de la Amada
-developed c. 1500 BC, persisted for 3000 yrs.
~Olmec "mother culture"?
~shared ritual practices
----bloodletting, the Ballgame
~long-distance trade of precious objects
~widespread symbolic motifs
---were-jaguar, cleft-head (corn head?)
-Highly significant part of diet by 1 K BC
~Transition to farming
-Tribal agricultural villages
-ends w/ chiefdoms and states
-development of social inequality
-Maya city-states and Tenotihuacan
-collapse of Maya political entity
-rise of Aztec Empire
-ends with Spanish Conquest (1521 AD)
"Olmeca"= Nahuattl for "people of the rubber country"
-Olmec culture first recognized by Mathew Stirling, 1943
~A ritual offering site near springs; NO RESIDENCY
--infant,child burial or sacrifice
~colossal head; faces are distinctive portraits
--mutilated and purposefully buried (respect or scorn?)
~1st capital; top of settlement hierarchy with subordinate settlements surrounding
~stone drain system
~language probably Mixa Zuatain(*?)
~Associative works by leader orginization: stones from 60 km away,paths,bridges,docks,etc.
-oldest writing (undeciphered)
~Monument A; giant head discovered 1862 by Jose Malgar
--purposely buried by Olmecs
--originate in Tuxtla mountains
~not entirely abandoned by 400 BC
Teotihuacan- "The place where divinity came into being"
~Architectural style: Talud(slope)/Tabelero(flat, painted slab)
~one of the first big cities
~Urban population grows from 80K-90K
~80-90% of Basin depopulated
-Coincides with eruption of Popocateptl, 1st c.?
~Central Ave. with pyramids alongside
~+2300 apartments,60-100 people in each
----dead buried in apartments
----thick concrete walls
~ethnic and class differentiation
~religious and social factions
~Moon Pyramid(oldest): Burial 1: 10 male sacrifices had bound hands and feet, beheaded. No deposit pattern. Burial 2: man, 2 puma, eagle, owl, snakes, etc. buried alive(?)
~Sun Pyramid (middle, largest)
~Feathered Serpent Pyramid (youngest, smallest): ~200 individuals grouped by sex, bound, highly decorated
~No glorified rulers b/c no stone portraits, or ruler burials (unlike Olmecs and Maya)
~Powerful leaders existed b/c military might, monuments, trade
~Religion central to government and society
-Found on Stela 31 at Tikal
Aztec= European name given to group led by Mexica tribe
Allies: Texcoco and Tlacopan
----formed Triple Alliance with Tenochitlan
Unconquerable: Tarascans and Tlaxcala
The Mexica tribe (originating from the Aztlan area) migrated into the Basin and settled in Tenotchitlan in the 1300s.
Aztec Empire defeated by Hernan Cortez.
~La Malinche:"Mother of Mexican History". Served as translator, Cortez's mistress.
----negotiates treaty with the Tlaxcaltecans (not honored)
~Smallpox beats Spaniards to Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan renamed; Mexico City built over it
~Almost all Nahuas converted to Catholicism within a few decades
12 books compiled in Nahuatl by Spanish friar Bernadino de Sahagun.
-lists social roles, morals, conquests, history, religion of local Aztecs