During this time period, European change was much more general than specific to each civilization. While certain inventions and ideas were founded in different countries, they were widely adopted across a variety of European nations. Although, Europe often saw issues between countries that left them more divided between one another than similar.
Religion began to grow and vary across Europe. In 1517, Martin Luther, a German monk, produced his Ninety-five Theses against the Catholic church. Several years later, he founded his own branch of Christianity, Lutheran, the first Protestant denomination. The religion likely wouldn't have become nearly as successful as it did had it not been for the invention of the printing press to quickly spread the ideas of Luther. At the same time, John Calvin created Calvinism. Although it wasn't extremely popular throughout Europe in general, it caught on in parts of France, the Dutch Republic, Scotland, and England. However, Europe was already concerned with King Henry VIII's new church named the Church of England, or Anglican. The Catholic Church quickly responded with reforms in an attempt to bring back converted Christians. This led to the religious wars throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. This religious division created tensions throughout European nations that wanted to have a central religion for the country while still appealing to the people. This ultimately created the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) in which the Catholics (Spain, Catholic German states, and the Holy Roman Empire) against the Protestants (the Dutch, the Danes, the Swedes, and Protestant German states [France also fought with the Protestants despite being Catholic and England provided aid without sending troops]). The Protestants won and retained the right to practice their religion in their countries.
Science was another huge European change. For starters, Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus proved the heliocentric theory that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun in the mid-1500's. Due to the denial of this by Catholics, it took more than a century before the theory was accepted throughout Europe. This was the spark for the Scientific Revolution. In the 1600's, Galileo confirmed Copernicus's theory. Isaac Newton from England created famous laws of motion and the concept of gravity. States of matter (solid, liquid, gas), concept of cells, idea of the vacuum, and statistics were all thoughts from this time. Inventions include the microscope, the pendulum clock, the barometer, and the thermometer.
During the 1700's, Scientific Revolution ideas challenged the authority and reasoning of the church. This led to the Enlightenment, also referred to as the Age of Reason. This was the first time since ancient Greece that philosophies were commonly discussed throughout Europe. John Locke from England and Voltaire from France were two of the more prominent philosophers. While some philosophers of this time remained Christians, many rejected religion and demanded states ruled by laws and freedoms instead of through tyrannical abuse of power justified by faith. This also created opportunities for women, such as Mary Wollstonecraft from England, author of A Vindication of the Rights of Women, and Catherine the Great in Russia.
Demographics in Europe changed dramatically during this time. The Columbian Exchange with the Americas gave access to new crops throughout Europe. This created a sort of "agricultural revolution" throughout Europe (and even in Asia). The potato revolutionized Europe, causing the population to double and triple across cities. This indirectly fueled the creation of a middle class and prompted urbanization, a trend that would boom after the Industrial Revolution.
Economics saw some changes during this time as well. Mercantilism advised tight control over the economy of colonies. On top of that, Adam Smith, a Scottish economist, is often credited with the idea of capitalism, which encourages free trade and an open market with limited to no government interference. This time was also intertwined with the Atlantic slave trade, sending millions of slaves off to colonies in the Americas (most of the slaves either went to the Caribbeans or Brazil).