European History

Time Periods


1050 - 1600

Classical learning- development of arts, sciences, philosophy, literature, religion, politics, art, etc.- Originated in Italy

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1650

new ideas, advances in education and technology, patriotism and expansionism, religious fervor led to it

The Reformation

1500 - 1600

Caused by christian displeasure with Catholic church, renaissance humanism, material success, resentment of nation state rulers over church power and landholding, printing press- started as attempt to reform- splintered into broadly classified branches Protestant and Catholic- social and political developments- war

Scientific Revolution

1500 - 1700

slow, uneven- often based of false leads and having setbacks- Astronomy, Math, Physics, Anatomy, Scientific reasoning- caused by curiosity and love learning from Renaissance humanism and individualism, Protestants generally pro-science, improved availability education


1550 - 1770

based on divine right, personal loyalties- increase control on taxation, growing armies, religion- smaller princes and noble aristocracies agree to minimize war and get land authority- limited by custom and law

Republican States

1550 - 1700

Legislatures hold some power over taxation and law, states not necessarily democratic because legislatures may only represent wealthy and nobles

Wars of Religion

1560 - 1650

Religious tensions from reformation plus political disagreement leads to wars- conflicts in France, Netherlands, Spanish attacks on England, Thirty Year's War


1600 - 1750

Music: flourishes- sustained note (bass continuo), ornamentation- Bach (German, 1685-1750)- Vivaldi (Italian, 1678-1741)
Art: Glorify Cath Church during counter reformation- emotional- action- religious

Global Economy

1600 - 1800

trade brings spices, tea, sugar, cotton from Asia and Americas to Europe- England and Netherlands especially benefit- Italian states and Spain decline- commercial innovations (banks, credit, bills of exchange, joint stock companies, long term investments)

War and Colonies/ Expansion

1600 - 1789

Colonized Americas- trading econ. on Atlantic Ocean- Englad and France take lead over Spain, Dutch, etc.-

The Enlightenment

1650 - 1804

(Dates Approximate)- Enlightenment thinkers generally agreed that societies and govts can improve and change, people have natural rights shouldn't be taken away by government, tolerance, reason and natural science are keys to understanding life- Philosophes- Ideas spread with literature, freedom of press, printing press- salons run by women- preached equality but still internally divided- Enlightened despots

Brirt slowly gets India

1700 - 1800

Industrial Revolution

1780 - 1815

gradual industrial development- start in Britain 1780s- spread slowly in conflict and unstable nations- Effects: manufactured goods went down in price and up in availability improving life quality, increase in urbanization and capitalism created wealth and new social class, population skyrocketed, bad work conditions, common child labor

French Revolution

1789 - 1791

idealogical clash between absolutism and Enlightenment- reaction to long-standing social, political, and economic problems in the Ancien Regime (the old order) including: regime almost bankrupt because of lifestyle of aristocracy and French aid in wars (American Revolution), disproportionate tax burden on peasants because aristocrats refuse to pay taxes, Estates system (with third clearly largest but with no extra representation and highest taxes), monarchy right to arbitrary rulings and unexplained arrests

Napoleonic Era

1799 - 1815

Wars spread ideas of democracy, nationalism- led to Congress of Vienna balance of power

New Imperialism

1800 - 1914

(approximate)- more direct state control- take control to protect missionaries- technology makes is Why not instead of Why (quinine 2 prevent malaria, steel-hauled boats)- Scramble for Africa- Asia- Reasons: Econ (provide new markets, materials, rarely profitable), Relig, Nat (glory), Radical (indigenous must be civilized, cult of masculinity, Boy Scouts in Britain)

War and Revolution

1815 - 1890

Second Industrial Revolution and 19th Century

1850 - 1918

(approximate)- brought about modern state- expansion oof steel, heavy industry, chemical industry- Germ and Russ industrialize quick- factories common (urban, rural, big, small, low wages, dangerous conditions worse for women and kids)- new social group: The Proletariat (industrial workers) sometimes unionized, bargained, strike to to get benefits and better working conditions- urbanization (early cities overcrowded, dirty poor but got better)- growth energy and transport technologies (steamboats, railroads, automobile)- women't rights- immigration

Belle Epoque

1880 - 1890

(approximate- until WWI)- Prosperity (car, airplane, elevated train, dept. store, world expo, Paris opera house), Progress, Peace, Power (domination African planes, steel, canals, drugs, social Darwinism and better techno justify imperialism)- humans have limitless power


1914 - 1918

Causes: Imperialism, Nationalism, Alliance System (Central Powers; Germ, A-H, Ott Emp vs. Triple Entente; Brit, Fran, Russia and later US), Multiethnic empires- Spark 191 murder Archduke Franz Ferdiinand- Wesern front: French and Brit fight Germs, Eastern Front: Germs and A-H fright Russ- trench war, gas, tanks, submarines, machine guns, airplanes, propaganda, industry (women work), mobilize home front

Age of Anxiety

1918 - 1950

question meaning life- because war and econ hardship- collapse old order- perfectibility of makind collapse- fundamental uncertainty- surrealism, expressionism, cubism


1919 - 1938

econ difficulties- fall of Russ, Germ, A-H, Ott Empires- rise dictatorship in It, Germ, Russ- Border wars Eatrn Euro- East Euro try to modernize, educate, collect taxes, hampered by politic division- econ probe make capitalism seem weak (product, industry, consumption)

Important Events

da Vinci-Mona Lisa


Leonardo da Vinci= Renaissance man

Black death

1300 - 1350

Bubonic Plague- bad methods to fix- Flagellants- people distrust church: why can't they fix it?- still recovering 1400s

Unum Sanctum


Pope Boniface VIII-dogmatic propositions on the unity of the Catholic Church, the necessity of belonging to it for eternal salvation, the position of the pope as supreme head of the Church, and the duty thence arising of submission to the pope in order to belong to the Church and thus to attain salvation. The pope further emphasizes the higher position of the spiritual in comparison with the secular order.


1304 - 1374

Humanist- Renaissance- letters to ancients wishing they were still around- father of humanism- writing shaped modern It language- travel as diplomatic envoy for church discovered classical texts

100 years War

1337 - 1453

armed conflict between England and France that saw the introduction of military technology like the longbow and the cannon. This conflict brought on the end of feudalism by making knights obsolete.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Two men claimed Papacy- one in Rome, one in Avignon (France)- Council of Pisa added a third- Ended with one pope in Rome- decreased confidence in position

Witch Trials

1400 - 1700

Causes: suspicions against midwives, mysogony, dependency of oder, single women,
End: spread scientific ideas, increasing fear of anarchy, decreasing fear of devil, increasing belief i human responsibility


1425 - 1430

first Westerd free standing nude since antiquity

Christopher Columbus

1451 - 1506

Italian- funded by Spanish monarchy to seek trade routes in Asia (1492)- ended up Caribbean- "New World"- Colonial government, Christianity, subjugate Native Americans

War of The Roses

1455 - 1487

Series dynastic wars in England ended by Tudors

Vasco da Gama

1460 - 1524

Portugese- discovered sea trade route with India by going round Africa- start brisk trade with Asian spices

Albrecht Durer

1471 - 1528

German artist- realistic paintings/engravings

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

German monk and professor- Leader Protestant reformation - "priesthood of all believers"- Freedom of a Christian- Consubastantiation- German princes liked it to assert independence from papal authority- salvation by faith alone- two sacraments (baptism and eucharist)

Ulrich Zwingli

1484 - 1531

Swiss reformer- Promoted Luther's belief in scripture readings- admired Erasmus humanism- salvation by faith alone- bible authority- de emphasized clergy and elaborate services more- individual believer- no transubstantiation, symbolic- strict morals

King Henry VIII (8)

1491 - 1547

Created separate Anglican church as official English church with him at head because pope Clement VII no annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon- catholic daughter Mary Tudor an dither citizens object- Puritans call for simplify church practices (Protestantism)

Suleiman the Magnificent

1494 - 1566

Ottoman Sultan at height power- captured Constantinople (christian center), Istambul (Muslim center), and siege to Vienna but fled because winter (1529), may have conquer Euro

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

French- founded Calvinism- live godly lives and good works for salvation- based in Geneva spread Switzerland, Netherlands, France (French Calvinists= Hugenots)- predestination- no center isle for ritual- strict morals- no central power in Switzerland to suppress it- sent out converters- church govt (theocracy) in calvinist Geneva

Machiavelli-The Prince


secular handbook advocating for ruthless politicians

John Knox

1514 - 1572

carries Calvinism to Scotland- Presbyterians- adopted as official Scotland religion by parliament 560

Thomas More-Utopia


christian critique of society

95 Theses


Luther's list complaints with Church- questioned indulgences and sail of church offices- on door of church at Wittenberg

Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigate globe

1519 - 1522

Portugese- proved planet round and larger than pref, estimated

Edict of Worms


Luther excommunicated by pope and condemned by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V after questioning at Diet of Worms- Frederik The Wise of Saxony sheltered Luther all year and Luther translated New testament into German

Herman Cortes- Aztec


Spanish- helped strengthen Spain claims in central and America by military conquest of Aztec in Mexico- Mexico City Capital of Spain



(estimated date) pacifistic- "to baptize over again" no infant baptism- shows early days split over specifics- extreme- separation church and state- persecuted put in cages

Peasant's War

1524 - 1525

In Holy Roman Empire- end to serfdom and unfair taxes- condemned by Luther but based part on his teachings

Phillip II Spain

1527 - 1598

Habsbirg son of King Charles V- wanted to unify lands inherited (Nethers, Spain, parts New World)- Devout Cath and believed uniform religion would help central power so fierce back Spanish Inquisition

Castiglione-The Courtier


Proper noble gentleman- "Renaissance man"

Augsburg Confession


Luther finalized split with Catholic Church- established the conventions of Lutheranism (faith alone, vernacular, priesthood of all believers, priests marry, two sacraments baptism and communion)

Michel de Montaigne

1533 - 1592

Popularized Essay genre- important philosophical work helped to establish important schools of thought (along with Hobbes Leviathan and Locke's Two Treatises of Government)- skepticism

Ivan IV (The Terrible)

1533 - 1584

(time ruled)- enlarges rule of tsars

Act of Supremicy


Henry VIII supreme head of Anglican church of England- definite split

Ignatius Loyola founds Jesuits


Counter reformation- Society of Jesus- to promote Catholicism around world- defenders of papal authority- founded colleges round world humanist

Copernicus- heliocentric universe


Polish- contradicted Aristotle and Ptolmey view accepted by church as earth at center of universe

Vesalius- De humani corporis fabrica


By Andreas Vesalius- On the Fabric of the Human Body

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Counter reformation- reformed bishop and preist conduct- reaffirmed seven sacraments, papal authority, transubstantiation, power (not sale) indulgences, good works, clergy celibacy

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Danish- collects observations of planets and stars

Miguel de Cervantes

1547 - 1616

Spanish- Don Quixiote (sympathetic parody of Spain's ideals on chivalry and their application to contemporary society- A Spanish man tries to restore the old-fashioned ideas of chivalry into the modern world)

Matteo Ricci

1552 - 1610

Counter Reformation- Most influential Jesuit- impressed Chinese with scientific/techno knowledge leading to spread Cath in Asia

Peace of Augsburg


Counter reformation- allowed princes of Holy Roman Empire to choose either catholicism or Protestantism as the religion of their territory for citizens to follow - Calvinists and Anabaptists not recognized

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

(time when ruled) England- tolerance- increases royal bureaucracy and efficiency

Death King Henry II- French wars Religion


sons start to war for power based part on relig beliefs- Catherine de Medici (mom) tries to keep control:
-Guise: Cath, Duke of Guise, Cardinal of Loraine
-Montmorecy-Chatillions: Protestant, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny
-Bourbons: Hugenot, Henry of Navarre bcomes Henry IV "Paris is worth a mass"
-Chatillions and Bourbons both protestant but fight anyway for power- Guise resist Catherine even though both Catholic
-masses get involved inspired by religious aspect but not about that



Counter reformation- List of forbidden books by Pope Paul IV

Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

inductive reasoning ( small info from experiments lead to big conclusions)

William Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

dramatizes human nature and English history in plays (Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, Julius Caesar henry V)- also poetry (sonnets)

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

telescope study Sun rotation, moon craters- universe follows math laws (orderly)- introduced experimental method (use of controlled observations and measurements to test hypotheses) to science

James I

1566 - 1625

England- he and Charles I centralized govt authority, weakened English parliament, alienated most puritans (influential in the legislature) in the decades leading up to English Civil War- divine right- unites rule of Scotland and England (James VI of Scotland)--king Scotland, Son Mary Queen Scots, took throne after Eliz died cuz she had no direct heirs- believed divine right kings and failed to realize importance of parlm- enforcement laws forced participation in Anglican services- "Addled parlm" tries to get rights, dissolved- 30 yrs War forced him to call Parlm- Great Protestation (House of Commons demands free speech and authority)- James dissolves Parlm and arrests leaders

Dutch Revolt


Dutch used to left alone toleration- South Cath, North Prot- Phillip II try to impose will, Pro resistance esp. William of Orange (the silent, politique, valued Nethers politic autonomy more than religion)- 1566 Phillip sent in army to stop Calvinist attacks on Cath churches, put new taxes on Nethers to pay for suppression of its own revolt- Spanish sacked Antwerp in retaliation to Dutch pirates- provinces allies (Cath and Prot) to expel Spanish (Not bout religion)- Sothern Cath provinces feared Calv and went back to Spanish by forming union under Spanish supervision 1579- Phillip II outlaws William of O- 1581 William of O makes Apology speech saying Phillip is heathen and no need for him anymore- succeed with help Eng and Fran (heightens tensions between Dutch, Eng, Spain and ended in permanent weakening of Spanish power)- northern provinces become Dutch Republic (thriving econ. shipbuilding, trade, Amsterdam main Euro money market, huge commercial fleet, relic toleration in private-prosperous, tolerant, secular mid 17th cen)

Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth forms


by Lublin Union- power divided between king and parlm- tolerance (for a time)



Ottoman Empire looses to Phillip II of Spain at sea battle- force 50,000 Moriscos (Spanish Muslim converse to Christanity still secretly faithful to Islam)to leave and settle mainly in North Africa

Johannes Kelper

1571 - 1630

German- Assistant to Tycho Brahe- develops laws of planetary motion

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


France- Catholics kill thousands Hugenots- King Charles IX's sister had married Henry of Navarre 4 days before attempt to reconcile Caths and Prots- agents of Guise (Cath) murder Admiral Gaspard De Coligny (MC, Prot)- endorsed by Catherine de Medici (regent mom of king) to balance Guise family ambitions with Protestants

Netherlands Protestant revolutions

1572 - 1609

protestants revolt against Catholic rulers- end with peace agreement


1577 - 1640

Baroque artist- The Triumph of the Eucharist

Time of troubles

1584 - 1613

Russia- Many contenders claim throne

War of Three Henrys

1587 - 1589

Henry of Guise (Cath) vs. Henry of Navarre (Bourbon) (Prot) vs. King Henry III (succeeded Charles IX) (Valois)- end with Henry of Navarre converting to Cath and becoming Henry IV after reigning king Henry III and Henry of Guise were assassinated

Spanish Armada defeated by English


Pope Sixtus V launched catholic crusade against English after Elizabeth I had cousin Mary Stuart (Catholic) executed for attempts to overthrow her- Phillip II sent 130 ships to English channel but smaller Eng fleet scattered them by sending blazing fire ships into their waters- great wind send Spanish to tip Scotland and back to Spain- another reason because En support Dutch in in revolution against Spain

Nicolas Poussin

1594 - 1665

Classicism (realistic and orderly portrayal of nature, style of early Renaissance and ancient Greece and Rome)

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

"I think therefore I am"- deductive reasoning (going from general principles and using reason to get knowledge)

Edict of Nantes


End fighting in France (started with St. B's Massacre)- truce signed by King Henry IV (Navarre, converted from Prot to Cath) making France officially Catholic but tolerant of Protestantism- politique

British East India Company

1600 - 1874

Chartered by Queen Elizabeth I for trade with Asia to break Dutch monopoly over spoke trade with East Indies- trade in India- personal military and administration

Charles I

1600 - 1649

England- he and James I centralized govt authority, weakened English parliament, alienated most puritans (influential in the legislature) in the decades leading up to the English Civil War- he and Parliament (led by Puritan John Pym) fight over his taxation without parlm consent, his refusal to call parlm, and his centralized structure of Church governance -- divine right kings- wars- called parlm to get funds, they refused until he signed the Petition of Right (1628)- disbanded- Bishops War, Long Parliament- English Civil War- Beheaded for treason (1648) after Cromwell got control of government

Dutch East Indies Company

1602 - 1799

spices, tulips from Indonesian colonies- independent of government but represents governments interests

Rembrandt von Rijn

1606 - 1669

secularism style- Dutch- paints townspeople, commoners and mid class families- color, shadow- Rocco style (flowing curves like Baroque but smaller, less ornate)

Cardinal Richelieu

1607 - 1624

France- advisor to Louis XIII (13)- increases royal administration

John Milton

1608 - 1674

English Puritan author- Paradise Lost discusses sinful nature of pride

Romanov family takes power in Russia


Powerful ruling dynasty- Absolutism

Michael Romanov becomes tsar


Russia- establishes new Romanov ruling dynasty

Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

In HRE between Catholics, Protestants, Calvinists and Lutherans- began as protestant revolt- escalated to involve many Euro powers

Margaret Cavendish

1623 - 1673

participated in Science despite discrimination- English noblewoman

Harvey- De Motu Cordis


William Harvey- On the motion of the heart and blood

King Charles II

1630 - 1685

restoration of the monarchy in England after Cromwell's "Interregum"- monarchy, church of England and parlm all restored- better relationship with parlm mindful of dad- people fed up with Crom's puritanism ready for Church Eng again- still deep seated religious tensions (Anglicans, Puritans, Caths)

James II

1633 - 1701

England- Charles II bro- aggressively pro-Cath absolutist- baptized newborn son as Catholic completing rift between him and Parlm- Daughter Protestant Mary (married to William of Orange leading Netherlands resistance against Louis XIV)

Louis XIV (14)

1638 - 1715

French- ongoing wars, lack of support among nobles, 1685 revocation of Edict of Nantes (protected Protestant pop. in France)- part of series of monarchs whose powers were reduced via parliament- Bossuet= tutor justifies divine right kings with bible quotes- "L'etat set moi" I am the state- court culture reduced nobles power with extravagances, staying at their houses- Intendants (collect taxes, keep control in country)- decreased imports, increased exports, raised taxes on imported goods, self sufficient- merchant marine- private court- "Sun King"

Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

English Civil War- Charles I had to call after defeat in Bishops war to pay indemnities- demanded he impeach top advisors, Parlm meet every 3 yrs without being called, no dissolve Parlm without its consent- Charles attempt to arrest opposition members 1642 led Parlm to take control of army and start English Civil War

Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

English- light can b described mathematically- laws of gravity (studied with math)-everything attracts everything- developed calculus, describes motion, surface area, change in volume with math formulas (independently of Leibnitz)- combines experimentation with theory

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

conflict between Royallists/ Cavaliers (for monarchy under Charles I, peasants) and Roundheads (Parliament and interests of Puritans, mid class, merchants, major cities, a few nobility))- Oliver Cromwell led his New Model Army (rounded commander) defeated royalists and beheaded king Charles I- Cromwell became puritan dictator- in control of England, Ireland, Scotland- England returns to monarchy after- Glorious revolution- royal power reduced -- Roundheads ally with Presbyterian Scotland promising Presbyterianism imposed on England, Charles gets help from Irish Catholics- Cromwells New Model Army defeats Cavaliers at Marston Moor- Charles surrendered to Scots who gave him to Parlm led by Cromwell's Independents (toleration)- Scots then allied with Charles who promised to impose Presbyterianism on English- Cromwell defeated Scots at Preston and purged Presbyterianism from Parliament- this created Rump Parliament, beheaded Charles I for treasonEngland republic- Commonwealth- Cromwell designated Lord and protector by puppet parliament until death 1658- son Ruchard deposed 1660- Charles II becomes king

Louis XIV (14)

1643 - 1715

France- Sun King- Versailles- leads France into dynastic wars- conflict of Fronde (nobles revolt)- revoked Edict of Nantes (1685) (protected Protestant pop. in France)- part of series of monarchs whose powers were reduced via parliament

Bernini- Ecstasy of St. Theresa

1647 - 1652

Baroque- also did a David- triumph of Eucharist

Treaty of Westphalia


Ended Wars of Religion (30 yrs war)- pacified religious disagreements- altered borders of Euro emphasizing weakening of HRE- permanency of rift between Catholics and Protestants- Calvinists get legal recognition- Germ princes still determine religion of territories- independence of Swiss Confederation and United Provinces (Netherlands) recognized- (France and Spain continue war till 1659)

Ukrainian peasants revolt


in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth- against cultural, religious and economic domination of Polis-Lithuanian nobles- lasts over a decade


1648 - 1653

Nobles revolt against royal authority

Thomas Hobbes- Leviathan


English- humanity naturally materialistic, selfish- absolutism necessary to prevent conflict

Navigation Acts


Britain creates near monopoly on colonial commerce by time Brit, Wales, Scotland form UK (1707)- restricted use of foreign shipping trade between itself and its colonies

Oliver Cromwell rules England

1653 - 1658

Defeated Royalists in English civil war with New Model Army and beheaded Charles I- enforced Puritan Ideals, subdues Ireland and Scotland- Puritan dictator

Royal Society of London


Founded as prominent scientific society (no ladies)

Cavalier Parliament

1660 - 1679

right after English Civil War- under Charles II- creation Tories (nobles, Anglican state religion, monarchy over parlm, conservative) and Whigs (mid class, toleration parlm puritan)- Tories dominated this Parlm so Anglicanism restored, forbid dissenter worship in public, all officials must be Anglican

John Toland

1670 - 1722

English writer- Deist (universe has creator who can be proven through observation and reason

Peter I (the Great)

1672 - 1725

Russia- Greatest Romanov ruler- expanded and modernized Russia and founded powerful new capital of St. Pettersburg- encouraged service to state and rewarded talent with Table of Ranks- Western Ideas, dress, Culture

Test Act


Parliament under Charles II passed it requiring all officeholders to take communion into Anglican Church (impossible for catholics to serve in government or military) because feared Charles further promote Catholiciam after he and his bro James converted and suspended laws against Cath and Prot dissenters


1678 - 1741

baroque musition- heavy use bass notes, fine ornamentation

Habeus Corpus


By Whig Parliament (mid class, puritan, parlm, religious toleration)- suspicious of Charles II's absolutist Catholic tendencies- limited royal power by enabling judges to demand prisoners be in court, just cause for imprisonment, speedy trials, forbidding double jeopardy

Ottomans don't get Vienna


King John III Sobieski of Poland prevents Ottoman Empire from capturing Habsburg capital, Vienna


1684 - 1721

French painter- elegant, smaller, secular themes- rocco (similar Baroque curves with less ornamentation)

Johan Sebastian Bach

1685 - 1750

baroque musition- heavy use bass notes, fine ornamentation

Louis XIV revoked Edict of Nantes


Fontaille's Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds


to explain ideas of Copernican theory and other popular ideas of scientific revolution to masses

Glorious Revolution


England- moderates William of Orange (Nethers) and Mary (Prot daughter of James II) take power in England peacefully from James II (devout Rom Cath trying to impost cath on people)- Bill of Rights signed with parlm (no raise army without permission)-limited authority of monarchy and ensured equal power between crown and government- at time Parlm served interests of wealthy

John Locke- Two Treatises of Government


naturally peaceful- moderate role- rights, liberty, protect property- moderate government- helped lead to enlightenment- people can learn and improve

John Toland- Divine Watchmaker


English- deist idea that God is like divine watchmaker

The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Sweden- under Charles XII (r. 1697-1718)- against Russia

United Kingdom creation


Union of Scotland with England and Wales

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Emile, The Social Contact)

1712 - 1778

Swiss- confidence in essential goodness- Emile (free expression of kids education)- deep feeling alien to rationalistic- "noble savage" (controls own life and destiny)- The Social Contract (community small with equal rights organize their society and government which can be changed at will)- general will- women subordinate- blames problems on uneven property distribution in Discourse on the Origin of Inequality

Louis XV (15)

1715 - 1774

France- ineffective- less popular than Louis XIV (14)- monarchy no longer sacred

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Scottish economist- The Wealth of Nations- free markets and specialization of labor- invisible hand- liberal- want govt intervene in times of trouble

Frederik The Great

1740 - 1786

"Enlightened despot"- Prussia- revised laws and justice system- support for agriculture, art, education- led to rise in taxation- helped make Prussia major Euro power- admired voltaire- law code- burden of tax still on townspeople

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Britain, Russia, and Austria joined to fight France and Prussia to ensure survival of Hapsburg Empire (Austria part of it)

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

(time ruled)- Austria- She and son Joseph II of Austria worked to limit power of church, burden on peasants, abolish serfdom, reduce religious prosecution

Johann Herder

1744 - 1803

Nationalist- German- encourages study folk culture- each nation has own spirit

Jeremy Betham promotes Utilitarianism

1748 - 1832

English- Classical Economy (laissez faire)- belief that law and society should be organized to bring the most happiness to the greatest number of people

Hume- An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding


Scottish- Miracles cannot be proven

Montesquieu- The Spirit of Laws


French- constitutional limits to monarchs

Denis Diderot- Encyclopedia


(first published, with others)- knowledge of science, crafts, ideas

Joseph de Maistre

1753 - 1821

Conservative- French- social order comes from church- blames Voltaire for French rev

Seven Year's War

1756 - 1763

later:Austria and France who fear expansion of Prussia vs. Prussia and Britain- first real worldwide conflict happening at home and in their territories (India, North America)- part in North America called French Indian war where Brit ends France's NA empire- War of nations not just monarchs

Voltaire- Candide


French- criticized Catholicism in Candide- defended persecuted Protestants mid-1700s- freedom religion, expression, separation church state- political satirist (the catholic church)- works in almost every form

Steam Engine (efficient)


Scotland (approximate date) By James Watt- steam power revolutionized the textile and Iron/steel industries

Catherine The Great

1762 - 1796

Russia- "Enlightened despot"- social reforms in Russia- funded printing presses, new educational centers for nobles, clarifies rights of nobles- same time maintained doctoral practices: censorship, oppression of dissents, serfdom


1762 - 1814

Germ philosopher- Germs naturally superior and destined to dominate

Cesare Beccaria- Crimes and Punishments


justice- protects against torture

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Austria- he and mom Maria Theresa worked to limit power of church, burden on peasants, abolish serfdom, reduce religious prosecution

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

co-reigns with Maria Theresa (1765-1780) abolishes serfdom, promotes religious toleration- more taxes on peasants

Spinning Jenny


Invented in England by James Hargreaves- three produced quick with relative ease

Water Frame


English Richard Arkwright (date patented)- thread production more efficient

G.W.F Hegel

1770 - 1831

German- strong state leading people- ideas involve through conflict with each other

Pugachev Rebellion

1773 - 1775

Russia- under Catherine the Great- peasants revolt- suppressed

American Revolutionary War

1775 - 1783

Brit colonies in North America fight for in depended- help from French- United States of America- ideals which prompted it have revolutionary effect in Euro in late eighteenth century

Gotthold Lessing- Nathan the Wise


German- tolerance of non-christian faiths

Industrial Rev starts in Britain


Why Britain: island nation and major colonial power meant brisk trade market that called for increase in British made goods, stable government, economy can support growth and change, prosperous people can be consumers, mobile labor force (enclosure,primogeniture) can move from country to factories- major industries: textile (first), coal, steel- blueprint for other nations to start their induct process


1780 - 1790

(approcimate) King of Poland-Lithuuania after it was partitioned by Russia, Austria, and Prussia- not develop strong central institutions- promoted military, economic, educational, constitutional reforms- reforms undermined by Polish counterrevolutionaries making it possible for powerful neighbors to partition

Immanuel Kant- Critique of Pure Reason


promotes rational inquiry

Mozart- The Marriage of Figaro


Austrian- neoclassical composer (neo music: first public concerts, court patronage, melodies, symmetrical, orderly but complex)



citizens of Third Estate join National Assembly revolt and storm bastille which held many political prisoners and was a symbol of oppression

August Decrees


national Assembly end feudalism after The Great fear

The Great Fear


Peasants get invoked- rumors of rev in countryside- panic- peasants attack symbols of feudalism- National Assembly end feudalism

Constituent Assembly


Mod Phase- another name for national assembly because drafting a constitution

March on Versailles


(october Days)- Women march on Versailles and bring king Louis XVI back to Paris (tuileries)- encouraged by Jean Paul Marat

Estates General


Louis XVI calls reps from all estates to request more funding because financial crisis- Third Estate withdrew because of unfair treatment (Sieyes says Third Estate true French people- unequal representation proportionally), called themselves National Assembly and demanded major political and societal reforms (Tennis Court Oath)- constitutional monarchy- abolish noble privileges

Jacques-Louis David- neoclassicist painter


Lictors Bringing to Brutus the Bodies of His sons illustrates repub virtue (neo painting: geometric lines, big spaces, moral theme)

Declaration Of the Rights of Man and Citizen


National Assembly after Great Free- Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789) issued by the National constituent Assembly. Guaranteed:
1.Freedom speech, thought, religion
2. Due process law
3. Taxes only with consent of governed
4. Whole kingdom right to rule

Edmund Burke- Reflections on the Revolution of France


Conservative (stability through hereditary monarch, landed aristocracy, established church)- English- Cautions against overthrowing national traditions in Reflections on the Revolution of France

Civil Constitution of the Clergy


Mod Phase- drafted:
1. Abolish convents and monasteries
2. all clergymen paid by state elected by citizens
3. clergy forbidden to accept pope authority
-half priests of Gallican Church refuse (Cath church of Fran)- confiscate church land, issue paper money in exchange

Declaration of Pillnitz


King of Austria threatened mil it action to restore order in Fran- encouraged rad revs to overthrow monarchy

Louis XVI Flight to Verennes


Rad Phase- Louis XIV has been driven from his palace by his subjects- attempts to flee to Austria with help of Austrian king Leopold II- fails- citizens loose trust- King and queen become prisoners of Parisian mobs

Brunswick Manifesto


rad Phase- July- Issued by commander of Prussian army about to invade Fran- threatening people of Paris if harm came to King- Jacobin radical) leaders aroused Paris mobs

France declared a republic


rad phase- Sept 21- adopt red white and blue flag- Liberty, Equality, Fraternity- women still can't vote- control of Church (more divisive)- Sans Cullottes (those wearing long pants) and tricolor flag symbolize republican support

September Massacres


Rad Phase- bad news from battlefront- fear foreign armies would attack and prisoners would escape and attack- Radicals (esp Marat) call for preemptive action- pull thousands prisoners out and kill them in streets

Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria


rad phase- April- Legislative Assembly (legislature under new constitution)- in response to Declaration of Pillnitz ultimatum- beginning "Wars of the revolution"- conscript peasants who leave en masse

First coalition


rad phase- alliance Austria, Eng, Nethers, Prussia, Spain to combat french advance (nat inspired them to fight back)

Mary Wollstonecraft- A Vindication on the Rights of Women


English- A Vindication on the Rights of Women

France against anti-rev Euro powers


continues sporadically for 23 yrs spreading nationalism, democracy, suffering

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette executed


Jacobins dominate National Convention


rad phase- Enrages (rad working class leaders Paris) arrested Girondists in Nat Conv (support royal peasants) and leave Jacobins (democracy where everyone works for general will) in control under leadership of Robspierre

Republic of Virtue


Declared by Committee Public Safety in attempt to de- Christianize Fran- alienated Cath majority

Jacobins and Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

France- Jacobins (radical revolutionary faction) and their leader Maximillien Robespierre (1758-1794) seized power- Federalists want to decentralize revolution; crushed- aristocrats and some peasants start counterrevolution- began Reign of Terror where thousands nobles, royalists, and members of monarchy imprisoned and executed- he was guillotined

Committee of Public Safety- reign of terror

1793 - 1794

rad- Summer- under Jacobin Robspierre- 20,000 (75% working class, peasants) executed- justified by murder of Marat from within- killed ppl on both sides (reign of terror)- give birth to ppl who want equality and liberty and then they get squished- general will sets up apparatus for dictatorship

Danton ad Robspierre executed


Danton (origial Jacobin leader)- executed by National Convention b/c public opinion against ROT


1794 - 1799

Directory takes over after Jacobins fall- unstable- ruled until end of century

Thermidorian reaction


Robspierre and Danto executed by National Convention- returned moderate bourgeoisie to power

The Directory

1795 - 1799

5 member executive- established by National Convention to run govt- Napoleon Boneparte put down paris mob and rewarded with command french armies fighting Austrians in Italy

Thomas Malthus- An Essay on the Principle of Population


population increases exponentially ("geometric rate") while food supplies grow at arithmetic rate- pop will outstrip food supply- "gloomy parson" saw future with famine prevailing- "negative checks" will keep pop growth contained- poverty comes from overpopulation- Implications: helping poor will make worse

Napoleon takes control


France- centralizes admin.- social hierarchy based on service to state- utilized plebiscites to get popular approval of himself and his policies- Euro in almost constant war during his reign (he is military genius)



Napoleon makes peace wit Pope

Latin American colony independence

1804 - 1824

Latin American colonies overthrow Spanish, Portuguese, French rule

Napoleon declares himself emperor


brings domestic oder to France

Napoleonic code


codifies French law- promotes traditional family and women ideas

Battle of Trafalgar


British confirm naval superiority

France defeats Austria and Russia- Austerlitz


Holy Roman Empire Dissolves


Napoleon Blockades British trade with rest Euro


Spanish resist French invasion


French invade Russia


Mikhail Bakunin

1814 - 1876

promotes anarchism along with Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921)

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

After Waterloo end Napoleonic Wars- dominated by Austrian chancellor Metternich- Pre-Nap national boundaries restored- Bourbon monarchy restored to France (Louis XVIII constitutional monarch)- agreement to maintain balance power and squash revolutions- England, Austria, Prussia, Russia form concert of Europe- Creatn Germ Confederation, consolidation Dutch Repub and Aust Nethers, Pruss control Rhine, Aust control It states, Russ and Brit gains

Corn Laws

1815 - 1846

trade laws designed to protect cereal producers in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland against competition from less expensive foreign imports- To ensure British landowners got all financial profits from farming, the corn laws imposed steep import duties- too expensive for anyone to import grain from other countries, even when the people of Great Britain and Ireland needed the food (as in times of famine)

Germ Student Cubs want unification

1815 - 1848

inspired by Johann Herder



Coalition Austria, Brit, Prussian, Russian forces defeat Napoleon

David Ricardo- On Wages


English- "iron law of wages"= wages naturally tend toward minimum wage subsistence levels (fact owners like)- if u raise wages pop will increase then wages must lower again

Peterloo Massacre


England- demonstrators for Parlm reform massacred by (exacerbated by Corn Laws after brief boom because of textiles after Napoleonic wars)

Liberal revolts in Spain and Portugal


Louis Pasteur

1822 - 1895

discovered germs, vaccination, pasteurization, microbal fermentation

Russia failed Decembrist Revolt


failed against new conservative Tsar Nicholas I- aristocratic army officers read Enl and want more representation in government- secret societies where they study Enl- chance to revolt when Nicholas I assumes throne- swiftly defeated

Catholics can be elected to Parliament



Greece and Serbia independence


from Ottoman Empire (Greece revolted in 1821)

Belgium independence


from Netherlands

Louis-Philipe gets power/ July Revolution


rxn- France- Conservative Bourbon king Charles x (after Louis 18, wanted old order, ultra royalists) overthrown in favor of constitutional monarchy under Orleanist king Louis-Phillipe- helped mid class

First passenger railway opens in Brit


rails change Euro life- easier migration, quicker goods transport

Failed Revolts 1830


Poland briefly overthrow, crushed by Tsar- Germ revolt some concessions, mostly overthrown- It brief control, Austria keeps power

France gets Algeria


Poland revolution

1830 - 1831

failed against Russian rule

1832 Paris Revolution


Undr July Monarchy Louis-Phillipe- repubs want universal male suffrage, depression and starvation of poor- revolt in streets 2 days- July monarchy army killed 800- Victor Huge, Les Mis

First Reform Bill


England- Expands right to vote- still based on property

Reform Bill 1832 England


expands right to vote- still based on property

Slavery gets banned in some colonies

1833 - 1863

in colonial possessions of Brit (first in 1833), Fran, Nethers, Denmark, Portugal, Sweden



German customs union- draws germ closer

Queen Victoria

1837 - 1901

(r.)- England- embodies Brit mid class values

Victorian Era England

1837 - 1901

associated with mid class values ( family, classical liberalism, liberty of individual)- victorian morality


1838 - 1850

England- Peaceful, working class movement- all about getting politic power for working class(no vote yet)- huge rallies and petitions- democratization- rejected by Parlm in 1839 and 1842- Demands:
1. universal male suffrage
2. secret ballot (employers cant know)
3. no property requirement for office (poor can hold office)
3. salary for parlm (poor)



Louis Daguerre- first form photography


1839 - 1876

Ottoman Empire- reorganization- economic liberalization- equality for Muslims, Jews, Christians, difficult to put into practice

Pierre-Joseph Proudhun


Anarchism- declares all property is theft

Emile Zola

1840 - 1902

Realist- French- Nana about a prostitute- Germinal about a miner's strike

Friedrich Nietzsche

1844 - 1900

slave morality of christianity (praising weakness and accepting slavery)- ubermensch, superman (someone above and beyond it all who will challenge societal convention)- democracy ruler of weak- god is dead- nihilist (no point to anything, no natural laws morality, no god)- laid out ideologies which Nazis take on- criticizes morality and scientists- praises irrationality

Millicent Fawcett

1847 - 1929

England- lead a branch of Women's suffrage movement

Irish Potato Famine


"Black 47"- 1 million die in Ireland- 2 million leave- liberals no provide assistance

June Days


under 2nd republic- by taking away workshops- reveals class divisions among 2nd repub revs (low class did it for econ reasons, mid class did it for political)- 1,500 to 3,000 killed, 15,000 arrested, 1/3 sent to penal colonies (Algeria)- 1st bloody class war between mid and lower class- order over liberty in end, conservatives in charge again (Napoleon III 2nd Empire)

Second Republic


established by revolution of 1848 against July monarchy- univ male suffrage, no death penalty for politic crime, freedom of press- workshops, 10 hr day, no debtors prison, aid for unemployed

Frankfurt Parliament

1848 - 1849

Tries to unite Germ states- disagreement on weather Austria or Prussia should dominate new unified Germ- Prussian king Frederik William IV rejects plan for liberal, constitutional unified Germ

Liberal revolutions France, Germany, Austria



1848 revolution France


Corruption of Louis-Phillipe July monarchy (give members got richer over 18 yrs pwr), refused to extend vote, bad harvests- rioting in streets, army kills people, Louis flees in taxy- mid and working class set up republic (2nd French Republic)

The Communist Manifesto


Marxism/ Communism (branch of socialism)- German philosophers Karl Marx ("father of communism") and Friedrich Engels (wealthy dad sent him to Brit to learn business but he prefers to hang out with and observe working class- 7 people in 10 by 10) publish The Communist Manifesto- birth communism

Gustave Courbet- Burial at Ornans


Realist- French- paints bored funeral goers

Louis-Napoleon becomes Napoleon III


President Louis-Napoleon Boneparte (of give omitted by moderate mid class who want land protection and politic rep-won in June Days) becomes Emperor Napoleon III- allows liberal reforms but also takes away

Crystal Palace


for Great Exhibition- steel and glass- symbol induct age- countries all over showing best stuff

The Crimean War

1853 - 1856

international conflict- Fran and Brit join Ott Emp because fear Russian strength- Concert of Vienna broken- ended illusion of international cooperation in post-Napoleonic Europe- Direct cause: Russian demands to use power over Orthodox subjects of Ottoman empire- another cause: dispute between Russia and France over the privileges of the Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in the holy places in Palestine, about the rights of christians in the "holy land" controlled by Ott, Fren promote Cath, Russ promote Ortho- Russia lost ruining its indestructible image- Ottoman image weakened cuz had to have help- healthcare advances made by Florence Nightengale (British nurse)- Disease accounted for much loss on both sides (250,000)

Courbet- The Artist's Studio


realism- oil painting

Sigmund Freud

1856 - 1939

Austrian scientist- unconscious- founded field of psychoanalysis

George Bernard Shaw

1856 - 1950

Realist- Irish- riots with social critiques

Treaty of Paris


End Crimean War- Integrity Ottomans guaranteed- Black sea neutralized

Jean-Francois Millet- The Gleaners


Realist- French- peasants at work

Sepoy Rebellion

1857 - 1858

Hindu Sepoys allegiance with Mughals, other Indians join-Brit imposed direct imperial rule to restore order

Emmeline Pankhurst

1858 - 1929

England- lead branch of women's suffrage movement

Unification of Italy


(approximate)- planned by Carbonari (secret republican society)- Mazzini and Garibaldi promote romanticized republican nationalism- Prime min of Piedmont-Sardinia uses arms, diplomacy, Garibaldi's army to unify Kingdom of Italy- Italy came under control of King Victor Emmanuel II- adds Venetia (1866) and Papal States (1870) to kingdom

Charles Darwin- Origin Species


English naturalist- On the Origins of Species- only fittest survive (Social scientists later apply this natural selection to humans with Social Darwinism)

John Stuart Mill- On Liberty


Liberal (free press, legal equality, toleration, unregulated econ, fear rev by masses)- English- promotes freedom of conscience

Haussman fixes cities

1860 - 1868

(1860s) urban planner- fix Paris with sewage and wider streets, boulevards (**house man)

Alexander II abolishes serfdom in Russia


former serfs owe money for their freedom

Romania independence


from Ott Emp

Bismarck "Iron and Blood"


Prussian Prime min speech about unification of Germ- conservative rather than liberal reform- practitioner of Realpolitik like Machiavelli b4 him (better 2b feared than loved)

London underground railway opens


Prussia defeats Denmark


milit power

First Geneva Convention


protects wounded soldiers

Manet- Olympia


Impressionist- French- shocking nude

Prussia defeats Austria


milit pwr

Second Reform Bill


England- expands franchise further

Austria-Hungary created


Austria agrees to give minority control over its own interior government- remained Austria Hungary- Slavic minorities (Czechs, Serbs, Croats, Slovenes) within Austria-Hungary demand their own control

The Subjection of Women


British thinkers John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor argue for women's freedom

Suez Canal


in Egypt- connects Mediterranean sea, Indian ocean

Prussia defeats France

1870 - 1871

milit pwr

Third Republic


Napoleon III overthrown after defeat against Prussia

British govt. takes over elementary schools


Decree of Papal Infallibility


dogma of the Catholic Church which states that, in virtue of the promise of Jesus to Peter, the Pope is preserved from the possibility of error

Unification of Germany


(after long series of wars where Prussia dominated)- Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) planned unification- control to Emperor William I (1797-1888)- Nationalism in Germ state schools (first to do it)

Paris Commune


Protest to conservative government- leftist (social equality in opposition to hierarchy)- intended to administer Paris separately- Radicals and socialists participated- National Assembly sent army and reclaimed politic control at cost of 20,000 lives in 7 days (May)

Monet- Poppies


impressionism- full title: Poppies, Near Argenteuil- painting- highly rep of impressionism (small dabs of color, feeling)

Three Emperors League


pre-war- Germ Aust Russ

Graham Bell invents telephone



Russo-Turkish War

1877 - 1878

Bulgaria independence


from Ott Emp

Montenegro Independence


from Ott Emp

Berlin Congress


Russia t odds with Germ, Austria- Germany tries to limit Russian land gains- Russification (policy attempt to make non-Russians speak Russian, adopt Russian culture and religion

Henrik Ibsen- A Doll's House


Realist- Norwegian- psychological, emotional drama (in many of his plays)

First automobile in Germany


(roughly)- by Carl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler- cars and trucks become mainstream in coming centuries

French education reform


(1880s) free, obligatory, nonreligious

French Freedom of Press established


First public electric plant opens in Britain


electric power surpassed coal and steam power in industries

German Sickness Insurance Law


for workers

Third Reform Bill


England- Vote to most male farm workers

General Boulanger


Threatens to overthrow Republic

Claude Monet- Haystacks

1890 - 1891

Impressionist- French- several pairings of haystacks in different seasons/ types of light

Half-tone Printing


(1890s) easy for newspapers and books to publish photos

Marconi- radio communication


(1890s) Italian

Dreyfus Affair


France- anti-semitism accuse him of being spy for german- Emile Zola J'Accuse

Piere and Marie Curie, radioactivity and x-rays

1890 - 1900


Munich- The Scream


Expressionism (jarring colors, unexpected combinations of images to convey emotional message)- painting

Silent Films


first in France- modern life in motion

Herzl, The Jewish State


launches Zionist movement for separate Jewish state

Boxer Rebellion

1898 - 1900

ani-foreign, anti-christian rebellion in China- China remains index but Brit carve it into Spheres of Influence

Homer- The Gulf Stream


realism- oil painting

Int. Conference at The Hague to limit warfare


also one in 1907- Netherlands

Boer War

1899 - 1902

Brits defeat Boxers (farmers Dutch descent) in South Africa

British Labour Party founded


diversity beliefs from socialist to moderately social democratic- accepts govt. responsibility to reform

Max Planck, Quantum Theory


(1900s) energy (such as light) is made of small separate units of energy

Russo-Jaoanese War

1904 - 1905

first modern Asia victory over European power- helps lead to Russian Rev

1905 Russ Rev


Russ upset at loss to Jap- low wages for hungry peasants and workers- Bloody Sunday: Soldiers shoot peaceful demonstrators- Tsar Nicholas II agrees to reforms October Manifesto but new legislative assembly (Duma) powerless- slow attempts at agricultural reform

French State no longer governs religion


Einstein, special theory relativity


If a system of coordinates K is chosen so that, in relation to it, physical laws hold good in their simplest form, the same laws hold good in relation to any other system of coordinates K' moving in uniform translation relatively to K- everything is relative

Pogroms intensify


Russian attacks on jews

Pablo Picasso- Les Demoiselles d'Avignon


Cubism- Spanish- Pioneers use of geometric forms

Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina


formerly part of Ott Emp- tensions with Serbs

Young Turks


Ottoman Emp- group of reformist officers attempt modernization- become radically nationalist

First balkan War


Balkan states (Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro) ally successfully against Ottoman Empire

Albania independence


Second Balkan War


Serbia, Greece, others defeat Bulgaria (angered by it's acquisitions during first Balkan war)

Stravinsky- The Rite of Spring


Ballet- debuts in France- challenges rationality and convention

Emily Davidson


stepped in front kings horse at derby to put suffragette ribbon on it- trampled- died of coma- martyr

Germ invades Belgium Schliffen plan


Western Front- attempt at quick win fails- fighting settles into trench warfare

Assassination Franz-Ferdinand


triggers war between Serbia and A-H which triggers WWI

Battle of Somme


Westrn Front- single worst day in British military h istory. 1 million casualties. shot high-explosive shells--over 100,000 a day. then they went through no man's land but it was a disaster. slaughter on both sides.- no improvement

Irish nationalist uprising


Eater Monday- republicans attack government buildings in Dublin- Brit sends troops in- geurilla warfare

Battle of Verdun


Westrn Front- single worst day in British military h istory. 1 million casualties. shot high-explosive shells--over 100,000 a day. then they went through no man's land but it was a disaster. slaughter on both sides.- no advances

Russia Out


because internal struggles- tsarist govt overthrown and ultimately raced by Bolsheviks led by Lenin who quick changed policy in favor of Marxist state

US in


upset by Germ submarine tactics (sinking Lusitania)- in supper Brit and Fran

February Revolution


WWI poorly for Russia, food shortages- Nicholas II seen as inept and swayed by fraud Rasputin- tsar overthrown and moderate provisional government installed under Alexander Kerensky, stays in war

October Revolution


Bolsheviks (majority, actually minority) promote Marxist revolution led by small vanguard- believe state control property, peasants (not workers) key to success- Lenin exiled to Russia- workers form organizations (soviets) who initiate October revolution where Bolsheviks overthrow provisional government

Women can vote in Britain


Ottoman Empire splits


Despite efforts for reform

Civil War Russia

1918 - 1920

Reds (Bolshevik Communists under Lenin army organized by Trotsky) vs. Whites (support tsar aided by US, Brit, Fran, Can)- Red win

Brest-Litvosk treaty, Russ out


signed by Lenin



combines Servia with former A-H territories of Croatia, Slovenia, others

Weak liberal Weimar Republic


Treaty of Versailles


End WWI- temp promote democracy, encourage fall empires, allow creation of Czechoslovakia, Aust, Hung, Poland- punish Germ (War Guilt) breeding discontent
1. Certain Germ territories and overseas colonies ceded to Allies
2. War Guilt
3. Germ navy severely cut back to 100,000 soldiers
4. Rhineland (between Fran and Germ) demilitarized and occupied
5. Germ had 2 pay reparations ($33 billion)
6. Wilson's League of Nations (international politic organization to settle politic disputes- no milit power- Germ initially not allowed in)

Dictatorships rise in newly indep territories

1920 - 1930

Dict in Pol, Hung, Yugoslav, Romanis- Czech rmains democratic



Lenin New Economic Policy takes step back- allows private property more guarantees to private owners



founded- Union Soviet Socialist Republics

Creation Irish Free State


self governing, owing allegiance to crown- separated 6 northern countries of Ulster to remain part of Brit with rep within Brit parlm

Mussolini takes Italy


in fascist march on Rome

France occupies Ruhr Germ


demand reparations payments- inflation

Lenin dies


no clear successor

First Labour Party Government in Brit


Hitler Mein Kampf


My Struggle- outlines Nazi plans

Brit General Strike fail


general strike that lasted 10 days, from 3 May 1926 to 13 May 1926. It was called by the general council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) in an unsuccessful attempt to force the British government to act to prevent wage reduction and worsening conditions for 800,000 locked-out coal miners. Some 1.7 million workers went out, especially in transport and heavy industry. The government was prepared and enlisted middle class volunteers to maintain essential services. There was little violence and the TUC gave up in defeat. In the long run, there was little impact on trade-union activity or industrial relations.

Stalin in power


End NEP- 5 year plans focus on building heavy industry- forced collectivization, famine, targets kulaks (wealthy peasants)- Saliin exiles rivals, show trials, imprisoned, killed, sent to Siberian (millions)- Women allowed to become politic, milit leaders but still family responsibilities

Great Dep begins


Lateran accord


Vatican and Italy peace

National Govt. Britain tries to deal with depression


a coalition of parties

Hitler Chancellor


France-Right wing anti-parlm riots


Italy invades Etheopia


Fran and Brit no act

Nuremberg Laws


rvoke Jew citizenship

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

Spanish civil war between fascists (Germ and It) and republicans (supported by communists, USSR)- Fascist Francisco Franco takes power



Nazis destroy Jew stores, synagogues- night broken glass