Victimology Timeline - House

Samantha House Victimology - McCann George Mason University

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Industrial Revolution

1760
  • Shift away from agriculture society and victim justice
  • Victims and criminals became harder to find

Marital Unity Doctrine

1765
  • Written by William Blackstone
  • Reflected the American opinion of marriage and domestic violence
  • Wife and husband identities merged and husband is responsible for keeping wife in line.

James Kent's Commentaries on American Law

1827
  • Summarized the state of current legal practice at that time

Bradley v. Mississippi

1827
  • First case of domestic violence that was overtly condoned
  • Husbands given the right to chastise wives
  • Valuing the right to marital privacy

New York Court finds Opposite

1832
  • New York court disagrees with Delaware
  • Removal of chastisement will result in moral corruption

North Carolina v. Black

1864
  • Man can assert force to make a woman "behave herself"
  • Law enforcement will not "go behind the curtain" without the presence of permanent injury or excessive violence

Knight v. Knight

1871
  • Took place in Iowa
  • Woman not allowed to divorce husband on the grounds of "cruel treatment"
  • Court states "her own misconduct provoked the violence"

Fulgham Case

1871
  • Took place in Alabama
  • Allowed prosecution against DV offenders
  • Equal protection of woman as to man in regards to domestic violence

Chicago Protective Agency for Women and Children

1885
  • Provided legal aid and personal assistance to women who were victim to abuse

Men Arrested in Charleston for DV Were Black

1889 - 1894
  • 58 out of 60 men arrested for domestic violence in Charleston, SC were Black
  • This reflected the unwillingness of police to arrest white offenders
  • Inequality

Divorce Laws Liberalized

1900 - 1910

(Early 1900s)
- Divorce laws now allowed women to seek divorce on the grounds of cruelty

35 out of 46 States Passed Liberalized Divorce Laws

1910
  • By this time 35 states passed liberalized divorce laws
  • Domestic relations courts were developed
  • Civil actions could be sought for divorce (but no charges were pressed)

25 Cities Adopted Chicago's Protective Agency

1915 - 1920

Delaware Court

1929
  • Delaware Court decides a man cannot strike his pregnant wife

FBI Begins UCR

1931
  • FBI begins the Uniform Crime Report

UCR is Started

1931
  • Uniform Crime Report
  • Limited information due to hierarchy rule, missing unreported crime, and limited offender/victim info

Rise of Psychology

1940 - 1959
  • Rise of psychology in the treatment of individuals
  • People were no longer just criminals and victims, they were now clients

End of Social Work Era

1940 - 1949
  • Women's bureaus disappear

The Criminal and His Victim

1948
  • Written by Von Hentig
  • Some people are predisposed to becoming criminal and victims
  • Victims usually included: rich, children, elderly

Civil Rights Movement

1954 - 1968

Six Degrees of Victim Blame

1956
  • Written by Benjamin Mendelsohn
  • They are: 1.) Completely innocent victims 2.) Victim's with minor guilt 3.) Victim as guilty as offender/voluntary victim 4.) Victim more guilty than offender 5.) Most guilty victim 6.) Simulating or imaginary victim

Margaret Fry

1957
  • Margaret Fry suggests victim compensation in England

Amir on Rape

1958 - 1960
  • Amir does a study on rape
  • Seen as promoting victim blaming in rape cases

Compensation and Restitution

1960 - 1969

Radiologists Discover Battered Child Syndrome

1960 - 1969
  • Saw evidence of repeat abuse

Mapp v. Ohio

1961
  • No evidence obtained from illegitimate searches can be used
  • Victims' Rights saw this as the first sign of "coddling" criminals

New Zealand Adopts Compensation

1963
  • This is the first country in the world to adopt compensation for victims

The Criminal and His Victim

1965
  • Written be Stephen Schafer
  • Victim precipitation
  • Sometimes there are things we do that contribute to us becoming a victim

California Initiates First Victim Compensation in USA

1965 - 1979
  • By 1979, 28 other states have this

First Act to Protect Victims Rights Established

1965

Miranda

1966

Women and Children's Movement

1970 - 1979

Government Funded In-House Projects

1970 - 1979
  • The government funded in-house projects to encourage victims to participate in prosecution

Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. McAfee

1971
  • Husband causes wife's death by hitting her while she was drunk
  • Court rules against husband

NCS becomes NCVS

1972
  • The National Crime Survey becomes the National Crime Victimization Survey

First 3 Victim Assistance Programs in USA

1972
  • First three opened in USA
  • Two were rape crisis centers. One each in DC and San Francisco

Victim-Offender Mediation

1973
  • Used in Canada
  • Usually happens post-conviction

LEAA Conference

1973 - 1975
  • Law Enforcement Administration Association held their first conference
  • In 1974, funding established the first local victim/witness programs
  • 1n 1975, the National Office of Victim Assistance was founded

Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act

1974
  • Mandatory reporting
  • Database accessible 24/7

First National Victim Resource Centere

1978
  • Funded by LEAA block grants

First National Coalition Against Domestic Violence

1978

Steinmetz

1978
  • Established the term "elder abuse"

Lenore Walker

1979
  • Established learned helplessness and the cycle of violence

Crime Victims' Book

1979
  • This was provided to service providers
  • It made known the available resources to serve victims
  • It was used to identify and meet victims' needs

National Campaign for Victims' Rights Founded

1980 - 1981
  • Ronald Reagan established the first Victims' Week in 1981 to raise awareness

Temporary Restraining Orders Become Available

1980

NIBRS Begins

1980
  • Records all crimes in a single event

MADD Formed

1980
  • Mothers Against Drunk Driving

Rape Shield Laws

1980
  • Limits cross-examination of victim's past sexual behavior

First Victims' Bill of Rights Passed

1980
  • Passed in Wisconsin

Minneapolis Experiment

1981 - 1982
  • Police responding to domestic violence calls are instructed to pick a card that corresponded as to how to respond to call

President's Task Force Founded

1982
  • Resulted in VOCA

National Victim and Witness Protection Act

1982
  • Omnibus Victim/Witness Protection Act was matching Federal Act

National Conference on the Judiciary and Victim Rights

1983
  • Discussed and modeled laws on how to protect the rights of victims

Office of Victims of Crime Opens

1983

With Department of Justice

Thurman v. Torrington Police

1984
  • Connecticut
  • Police took their time getting to the house while victim was being abused.
  • Husband abused her in front of police before they stepped in.
  • Thurman won the case

Family Violence Prevention and Treatment Act

1984
  • Made abuse and neglect of the elderly illegal

Older Americans Act

1984
  • Required states to assess the problem of elder abuse

VOCA First Passed

1984
  • Passed by President Reagan
  • Funded with offender fines and not taxes
  • 4 million crime victims each year
  • Federal victim notification system
  • Shelters, crisis centers, child abuse treatment programs

Booth v. Maryland

1987
  • Ruled that no victim impact statements could be used during sentencing

Gathers v. South Carolina

1989
  • No statements about the victim's character can be made by the prosecution

Family Group Conferencing

1989
  • New Zealand
  • Ultimate in shaming
  • Stakeholders can attend

Restitution a Punishment

1990

By 1990, 48/50 states made restitution "a punishment unto itself"

Police Academies Add DV Training

1990 - 1999
  • During the 1990s police academies added domestic violence training to their curriculum

Clery Act Passed

1990
  • Universities required to accurately report on campus crimes

Circle Sentencing

1990
  • Canada
  • Minor crimes
  • Anyone interested can attend

Crime Control Act

1990
  • Created Victims' Bill of Rights

Payne v. Tennessee

1991
  • Reversed Booth and Gathers

Family Violence and Prevention Services Act

1992

Hate Crime Statistics Act

1992
  • Agencies had to collect all info on hate crimes (reported as a separate crime)

MCJFCJ

1994
  • Model Code on Domestic Violence by the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Justices

VAWA

1994
  • Violence Against Women Act
  • Improve criminal justice response to violence against women through training
  • Add services in communities to support domestic violence victims
  • STOP - Services and Training for Officers and Prosecutors

Child Abuse Registry Launched

1994
  • Doctors can now check a registry to see if a child has been to other ER's for similar injuries

Implementation of the Domestic Violence Hotline

1996

Community Notification Act

1996
  • Megan's Law
  • Information about registered sex offenders is made available to the public

Lautenburg Amendment

1996
  • Cannot own a firearm if convicted of domestic violence

Kansas v. Hendricks

1997
  • Aimed at sexually violent predators
  • Treatment

Victims' Rights Clarification Act

1997
  • Result of Oklahoma City bombings
  • Granted victims the right to be present during trial

Office of Victims of Crime

1998
  • Gives recommendations to victims to improve access to civil suits

Crime Victims with Disabilities Act

1998

Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act Reauthorized

2003

Smith et al., v. Doe et al.

2003
  • Group of people didn't want their info and photos posted
  • Supreme Court upheld registry
  • Ruled that it was done to protect people, not to punish offenders