Victimology Timeline - House

Samantha House Victimology - McCann George Mason University

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Industrial Revolution

1760
  • Shift away from agriculture society and victim justice
  • Victims and criminals became harder to find

Marital Unity Doctrine

1765
  • Written by William Blackstone
  • Reflected the American opinion of marriage and domestic violence
  • Wife and husband identities merged and husband is responsible for keeping wife in line.

Bradley v. Mississippi

1827
  • First case of domestic violence that was overtly condoned
  • Husbands given the right to chastise wives
  • Valuing the right to marital privacy

James Kent's Commentaries on American Law

1827
  • Summarized the state of current legal practice at that time

New York Court finds Opposite

1832
  • New York court disagrees with Delaware
  • Removal of chastisement will result in moral corruption

North Carolina v. Black

1864
  • Man can assert force to make a woman "behave herself"
  • Law enforcement will not "go behind the curtain" without the presence of permanent injury or excessive violence

Fulgham Case

1871
  • Took place in Alabama
  • Allowed prosecution against DV offenders
  • Equal protection of woman as to man in regards to domestic violence

Knight v. Knight

1871
  • Took place in Iowa
  • Woman not allowed to divorce husband on the grounds of "cruel treatment"
  • Court states "her own misconduct provoked the violence"

Chicago Protective Agency for Women and Children

1885
  • Provided legal aid and personal assistance to women who were victim to abuse

Men Arrested in Charleston for DV Were Black

1889 - 1894
  • 58 out of 60 men arrested for domestic violence in Charleston, SC were Black
  • This reflected the unwillingness of police to arrest white offenders
  • Inequality

Divorce Laws Liberalized

1900 - 1910

(Early 1900s)
- Divorce laws now allowed women to seek divorce on the grounds of cruelty

35 out of 46 States Passed Liberalized Divorce Laws

1910
  • By this time 35 states passed liberalized divorce laws
  • Domestic relations courts were developed
  • Civil actions could be sought for divorce (but no charges were pressed)

25 Cities Adopted Chicago's Protective Agency

1915 - 1920

Delaware Court

1929
  • Delaware Court decides a man cannot strike his pregnant wife

UCR is Started

1931
  • Uniform Crime Report
  • Limited information due to hierarchy rule, missing unreported crime, and limited offender/victim info

FBI Begins UCR

1931
  • FBI begins the Uniform Crime Report

End of Social Work Era

1940 - 1949
  • Women's bureaus disappear

Rise of Psychology

1940 - 1959
  • Rise of psychology in the treatment of individuals
  • People were no longer just criminals and victims, they were now clients

The Criminal and His Victim

1948
  • Written by Von Hentig
  • Some people are predisposed to becoming criminal and victims
  • Victims usually included: rich, children, elderly

Civil Rights Movement

1954 - 1968

Six Degrees of Victim Blame

1956
  • Written by Benjamin Mendelsohn
  • They are: 1.) Completely innocent victims 2.) Victim's with minor guilt 3.) Victim as guilty as offender/voluntary victim 4.) Victim more guilty than offender 5.) Most guilty victim 6.) Simulating or imaginary victim

Margaret Fry

1957
  • Margaret Fry suggests victim compensation in England

Amir on Rape

1958 - 1960
  • Amir does a study on rape
  • Seen as promoting victim blaming in rape cases

Radiologists Discover Battered Child Syndrome

1960 - 1969
  • Saw evidence of repeat abuse

Compensation and Restitution

1960 - 1969

Mapp v. Ohio

1961
  • No evidence obtained from illegitimate searches can be used
  • Victims' Rights saw this as the first sign of "coddling" criminals

New Zealand Adopts Compensation

1963
  • This is the first country in the world to adopt compensation for victims

First Act to Protect Victims Rights Established

1965

California Initiates First Victim Compensation in USA

1965 - 1979
  • By 1979, 28 other states have this

The Criminal and His Victim

1965
  • Written be Stephen Schafer
  • Victim precipitation
  • Sometimes there are things we do that contribute to us becoming a victim

Miranda

1966

Government Funded In-House Projects

1970 - 1979
  • The government funded in-house projects to encourage victims to participate in prosecution

Women and Children's Movement

1970 - 1979

Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. McAfee

1971
  • Husband causes wife's death by hitting her while she was drunk
  • Court rules against husband

First 3 Victim Assistance Programs in USA

1972
  • First three opened in USA
  • Two were rape crisis centers. One each in DC and San Francisco

NCS becomes NCVS

1972
  • The National Crime Survey becomes the National Crime Victimization Survey

LEAA Conference

1973 - 1975
  • Law Enforcement Administration Association held their first conference
  • In 1974, funding established the first local victim/witness programs
  • 1n 1975, the National Office of Victim Assistance was founded

Victim-Offender Mediation

1973
  • Used in Canada
  • Usually happens post-conviction

Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act

1974
  • Mandatory reporting
  • Database accessible 24/7

Steinmetz

1978
  • Established the term "elder abuse"

First National Coalition Against Domestic Violence

1978

First National Victim Resource Centere

1978
  • Funded by LEAA block grants

Crime Victims' Book

1979
  • This was provided to service providers
  • It made known the available resources to serve victims
  • It was used to identify and meet victims' needs

Lenore Walker

1979
  • Established learned helplessness and the cycle of violence

First Victims' Bill of Rights Passed

1980
  • Passed in Wisconsin

Rape Shield Laws

1980
  • Limits cross-examination of victim's past sexual behavior

MADD Formed

1980
  • Mothers Against Drunk Driving

NIBRS Begins

1980
  • Records all crimes in a single event

Temporary Restraining Orders Become Available

1980

National Campaign for Victims' Rights Founded

1980 - 1981
  • Ronald Reagan established the first Victims' Week in 1981 to raise awareness

Minneapolis Experiment

1981 - 1982
  • Police responding to domestic violence calls are instructed to pick a card that corresponded as to how to respond to call

National Victim and Witness Protection Act

1982
  • Omnibus Victim/Witness Protection Act was matching Federal Act

President's Task Force Founded

1982
  • Resulted in VOCA

Office of Victims of Crime Opens

1983

With Department of Justice

National Conference on the Judiciary and Victim Rights

1983
  • Discussed and modeled laws on how to protect the rights of victims

VOCA First Passed

1984
  • Passed by President Reagan
  • Funded with offender fines and not taxes
  • 4 million crime victims each year
  • Federal victim notification system
  • Shelters, crisis centers, child abuse treatment programs

Older Americans Act

1984
  • Required states to assess the problem of elder abuse

Family Violence Prevention and Treatment Act

1984
  • Made abuse and neglect of the elderly illegal

Thurman v. Torrington Police

1984
  • Connecticut
  • Police took their time getting to the house while victim was being abused.
  • Husband abused her in front of police before they stepped in.
  • Thurman won the case

Booth v. Maryland

1987
  • Ruled that no victim impact statements could be used during sentencing

Family Group Conferencing

1989
  • New Zealand
  • Ultimate in shaming
  • Stakeholders can attend

Gathers v. South Carolina

1989
  • No statements about the victim's character can be made by the prosecution

Crime Control Act

1990
  • Created Victims' Bill of Rights

Circle Sentencing

1990
  • Canada
  • Minor crimes
  • Anyone interested can attend

Clery Act Passed

1990
  • Universities required to accurately report on campus crimes

Police Academies Add DV Training

1990 - 1999
  • During the 1990s police academies added domestic violence training to their curriculum

Restitution a Punishment

1990

By 1990, 48/50 states made restitution "a punishment unto itself"

Payne v. Tennessee

1991
  • Reversed Booth and Gathers

Hate Crime Statistics Act

1992
  • Agencies had to collect all info on hate crimes (reported as a separate crime)

Family Violence and Prevention Services Act

1992

Child Abuse Registry Launched

1994
  • Doctors can now check a registry to see if a child has been to other ER's for similar injuries

VAWA

1994
  • Violence Against Women Act
  • Improve criminal justice response to violence against women through training
  • Add services in communities to support domestic violence victims
  • STOP - Services and Training for Officers and Prosecutors

MCJFCJ

1994
  • Model Code on Domestic Violence by the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Justices

Lautenburg Amendment

1996
  • Cannot own a firearm if convicted of domestic violence

Community Notification Act

1996
  • Megan's Law
  • Information about registered sex offenders is made available to the public

Implementation of the Domestic Violence Hotline

1996

Victims' Rights Clarification Act

1997
  • Result of Oklahoma City bombings
  • Granted victims the right to be present during trial

Kansas v. Hendricks

1997
  • Aimed at sexually violent predators
  • Treatment

Crime Victims with Disabilities Act

1998

Office of Victims of Crime

1998
  • Gives recommendations to victims to improve access to civil suits

Smith et al., v. Doe et al.

2003
  • Group of people didn't want their info and photos posted
  • Supreme Court upheld registry
  • Ruled that it was done to protect people, not to punish offenders

Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act Reauthorized

2003