Scottish Studies 1B



10000 BC - 3800 BC

Middle Stone Age; Hunter-gatherers
-flint & chert artefacts
-caves & rock-shelters
-nonpermanent settlements, nomadic


3800 BC - 2300 BC

New Stone Age; First farmers
-monuments => funerary monuments, henge monuments
-villages => made of timber or stone
-more material goods => new tools, ceramics

Bronze Age

2300 BC - 800 BC

-trade with Europe
-"warrior elite" system

Iron Age

800 BC - 80 AD

-iron weapons & tools; gold status objects
-Roman empire

Early Medieval

400 CE - 1000 CE

Scottish Enlightenment

1688 CE - 1832 CE



10000 BCE - 9000 BCE

Sea level rise - Britain isolated

6000 BCE - 5000 BCE

environmental change => deglaciation

4000 BC

development of forests

3700 BC

Romans in Britain

43 CE

Romans in Scotland

80 CE

Ptolemy's 'Geography'

145 AD

written in the 2nd century; names different Scottish tribes at the time

Septimus Severus campaigns

208 CE - 211 CE

Romans against the Britons (SE Scotland)

'Barbarian Conspiracy'

367 CE

Attacks on Romans by the Picts and Scots

migration from Ireland to Scotland

500 CE

the origins of Dál Riata
(exact date uncertain - sometime in 4th-5th c.)

Christianity in Northern Britain

563 CE

563 CE was the arrival of Columba, who helped convert Picts and northern English; the Dál Rialta (Gaelic) region converted somewhat earlier

Battle of Necthansmere

685 CE

Picts vs Anglo-Saxons => Pictish victory, Anglo-Saxon king killed; recorded in Irish chronicles

Viking Raids and Settlements

700 CE - 900 CE

In north and west => Atlantic coasts

Height of the Dál Riata Gaelic Kingdom

700 AD

The Creation of Alba

780 CE - 900 CE

Either by Gaelic conquest, or possibly Pictish takeover of Dál Riata => Northern Scotland united and formed into Alba

Sack of Dumbarton

870 CE

Dumbarton sacked by Vikings

Struggles in Moray

1040 CE - 1100 CE

Mac Bethad => Máel Coluim
Moray more fully controlled after 1130

first royal burgh established


Berwick, under King David I

Hebrides becomes part of the Kingdom of Scots

1266 CE

Union of Crowns


Union of Parliaments


Old Statistical Accounts

1791 AD - 1799 AD

Napoleonic Wars

1800 - 1820

New Statistical Accounts

1834 AD - 1845 AD

Potato Blight & Famine

1845 - 1850

50% of Scottish population in urban areas


Language, Literature, and Culture

Celtic migration from the continent to the British Isles

450 BC

Goidelic Celtic migrated to Scotland

300 AD

Germanic-speaking peoples came to British Isles

400 AD

Angles bring Germanic Language to the Scottish Lowlands

600 AD

Gaelic language at its height in Scotland

1000 AD

Statutes of Iona - separating Gaelic aristocracy from their language

1600 - 1615

Children of Gaelic aristocrats were required to learn English, to bring the Highlands under closer gov't control

Decline of Scots in favor of English

1600 AD - 1750 AD

Decline in politics as gov't becomes Anglicized in 1603 and 1707 Unions; decline due to printing of English books and Bible...

'Tea Table Miscellany'


Alan Ramsay's collection of Scots songs;
edited to be less bawdy, more refined

James Hutton

1726 AD - 1797 AD

father of modern geology

Joseph Black

1728 AD - 1799 AD

studied medicine and chemistry:
carbon dioxide (1750s); latent heat (1761)

James MacPherson's 'Ossian'


'Ancient Scottish Songs, Heroic Ballads, etc'


David Herd's Scots songs collection; faithfully preserved originals from oral tradition and manuscript

Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations


beginning of modern economics

'Collection of Highland Vocal Airs'


Patrick MacDonald's Gaelic songs collection

'Scots Musical Museum'

1787 - 1796

James Johnson's Scots songs collection

Simon Fraser's collection of Gaelic songs


Albyn's Anthology of Gaelic songs


by Alexander Campbell; first to present words and music together

J.F. Campbell starts collection of Gaelic folklore


'Popular Tales of the West Highlands'


J.F. Campbell's first Gaelic folklore collection


The Crusades

1095 - 1291

emigration to Mainland Europe

Scots colonize Northern Ireland

1607 - 1700

Colonization of Nova Scotia

1621 - 1632

area was returned to France

The Darien Scheme

1695 - 1700

Highland Clearances

1760 - 1850

due to crop failure, new forms of land exploitation (sheep), agricultural improvements

Material Culture

earliest Palaeolithic items

10250 BCE

in Howburn, Lanarkshire

Funerary monuments

4000 BC - 2000 BC

Tombs and cairns

Westray Wife

2750 BC

Found in Orkney, a small carving
dated between 3000 - 2500 BCE

Breaghwy-type halberd

2300 BC

Sutherland roundhouse

1300 BCE

Chariot mountings in a hoard

1000 BCE

introduction of horses to Scotland

800 BC

Ptolemy's map of Scotland

150 AD

First reference to 'Picts'

297 CE

Book of Kells

750 AD

8th century; an example of Insular Art Style

Book of Deer

915 CE

early 10th century, 12th century additions

Orkneyinga Saga

1200 CE

early 13th century; written in Iceland; tells account of the history of the Earls of Orkney

Paris Map

1250 AD

First map of the British Isles; Scotland is still incomplete and inaccurate, especially north of Stirling

Mappa Mundi

1300 AD

a flat, disc-like world, with British Isles at the very edge

Gough map

1360 AD

Timothy Pont's maps

1583 AD - 1596 AD

Many maps of Scotland, detailed maps of smaller geographic areas

Johann Blaeu, 'Atlas Novus'

1654 AD

copied and complied Pont's maps (with some errors, esp. in copying place-names)

William Roy's maps

1747 AD - 1755 AD

Mapping in the aftermath of the '45 Jacobite Revolt; authorities wanted detailed, up-to-date maps for military purposes; starting to be more systematic, using a consistent symbology

Estate Maps

1750 - 1800

Maps for determining land ownership, and for aiding in agricultural improvements; detailed maps of small areas

Ordnance Survey

1843 - 2014

Making new maps about every 10 years