Holy Roman Empire/ Germany and Italy and Russia 1600-1900

Holy Roman Empire/Germany

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

1619

King Gustavus Adolphus dies

1632

Hanoverian Dynasty begins

1714

Declaration of Pillnitz

1791

Confederation of the Rhine created

1804

Fredrich List's economic nationalism

1815

Burschenscaften formed

1815

Zollverein Formed

1834

Frankfurt Assembly

1848

William I crowned king

1861

Bismark's "Iron and blood speech"

1862

Bismark's Kulturkampf

1864

Bismark made chancellor

1871

Paris Commune resists Prussia

1871

German Unification complete

1874

Congress of Berlin

1878

Kipling writes white man's burden

1899

Italy

Baroque art movement

1600

Galileo put on trial

1633

Cavour begins unification process in Italy

1848

Garibaldi gives S.Italy to Cavour and joins him

1848

Mazzini advocates Italian unification

1851

Victor Emmanuel crowned King of Italy

1861

Italian Unification complete

1870

Impressionist movement

1878

Post-Impressionism

1888

Russia

St. Petersburg constructed

1703

Peter the Great's rule begins

1721

Catherine the Great begins her rule

1762

Decembrist Revolt

1823

Alexander II frees serfs

1861

Alexander II assassinated

1881