1607 to the Cold War Era
Began with the Portuguese ended with the Portuguese Brazilians
the Portuguese king had entered agreements with the rulers of several West African states that would allow trade between their respective peoples, enabling the Portuguese to "tap into" the "well-developed commercial economy in Africa... without engaging in hostilities." And in 1516, Bartolomé de Las Casas gets permission from Spanish emperor Carlos V to use African slaves to replace the exterminated natives in the island's mines and sugar plantations.
Jamestown was a settlement in the Colony of Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
England introduces African slaves in Virginia
Plymouth Colony was an English colonial venture in North America.
War between the British and Americans for independence.
Officially ended the war after the British loss at Yorktown, recognized the US as a nation and established boundaries that extended far to the west of the 13 original colonies (Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia).
Accelerated westward expansiona and put the world on notice not only that the land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi would be settled but that it would eventually become part of the United States. Until then this area had been temporarily forbidden to development.
Cotton Gin is invented allowing for the planting of short-staple cotton to be planted anywhere easily replacing tobacco, indigo, rice, long-staple cotton, and sugar. This resulted in "Cotton Kingdom."
This purchase doubled the size of the US for $15 million dollars to be paid to Napoleon. Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska; parts of Minnesota that were west of the Mississippi River; most of North Dakota; most of South Dakota; northeastern New Mexico; northern Texas; the portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide; Louisiana west of the Mississippi River, including the city of New Orleans; and small portions of land that would eventually become part of the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
The Britain and the United States would jointly occupy Oregon Territory. Clarified the northern border of the Louisiana Purchase. The land acquired by the United States in the treaty, known as the Red River Basin, would ultimately become part of the states of Minnesota and North Dakota.
Adam-Onís Treaty ceded Florida to the United States. In exchange, the United States agreed to pay up to $5 million in damages to Americans who had claims against Spain and to forfeit any claims to Texas
Cotton counted for 60% of the US exports and 1/5 workers in England were for cotton production.
The Republic of Texas voluntarily asked to become a part of the United States, and the government of the United States agreed to annex the nation. Mexican leaders had long warned the United States that if it tried to make Texas a state, it would declare war. And, almost immediately after Texas joined the union, the United States and Mexico went to war about where the proper border for the state of Texas should be
Britain and the US reached an agreement to divide the territory at the 49th parallel.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo let Texas and California be recognized as official states for the cost of $15 million. The Mexican Cession included land that would later become California, Nevada, and Utah, as well as portions of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming. The treaty also stated that Mexicans who remained in the state would be permitted to become U. S. citizens, and that they would be allowed to keep their property. However, the treaty was never fully honored. In the decades following the signing of the treaty, Mexican-Americans were stripped of nearly 20 million acres of their land by American businessmen, ranchers and railroad companies, as well as by the U.S. Department of the Interior and Department of Agriculture.
The Mexican government was in desperate need of money, and it agreed to sell a small strip of land along the U.S.-Mexico border to the United States for $10 million and included parts of New Mexico and Arizona.
This court case by Chief Justice Robert B. Taney ruled that all Blacks (including freed) were to be seen as property under the 5th Amendment Property Clause and their owner could relocate them anywhere. This caused much controversy in the Union as freed/ born free Blacks were scared of this ruling.
California, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island,
Vermont and Wisconsin.
Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia.
Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Virginia (seceded then only West Virginia came back), Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tenessee.
Secretary of State William H. Seward met with Russian diplomats and arranged for the United States to purchase Alaska for the cost of $7.2 million — about two cents per acre. The purchase was widely unpopular among Americans.
American sugar plantation owners came to increasingly dominate the Hawaiian economy so that they could sell the sugar that they raised to Americans without worrying about the U.S. government imposing a tariff