Untitled timeline



1350 - 1430

Period of “creative breakup”
A. Hundred years’ War —> the rise of the modern nation-state.
B. Black Death —> economic and social upheaval.
C. Avignon papacy and the Conciliar Movement —> breakup of papal power.

The Age of Exploration

1480 - 1540

Imperialism: expanding your empire
Price Revolution: importation into Europe of huge quantities of gold/silver cause price revolution = inflation
Capitalism: trade managed by pirvate property + companies, private held profit. Grows as Europe and New World becomes an integrated market
1600s-Dutch East India Company (banking+ shipping
Mercantilism: form of capitalism, private Property based, highly regulated by Monarchy. (belief total volume of trade is fixed)
Nations prosperity linked to amount of gold/ silver collected
Nations must export more than import, tariffs on imports
Colombian Exchange: import/ export of plants, animals, disease between NW and Europe
Nw→ Euro: tomatoes ,potatoes, corn, chocolate, Syphilis (increased population w/ nutrition)
Euro→ NW: crops, domestic animals, diseases
**Negative Result: War: deny others land, trade, power, increase Global conflict over resources

Main Themes:
1. Nations were looking for new trade routes which led to new explorations.
2. Nations sought new sources of wealth and new economic theories and practices to deal with
this new-found wealth.
3. Nations had the desire for increased world power through their colonial empires.

I. The Economy of the Commercial Revolution:
A. mercantilism → the colony existed for the benefit of the mother country; a monpolistic global eco.
B. bullionism —> the accumulation of precious metals by governments was seen as very important to the
prestige and power of a modern nation.
C. capitalism —> private ownership of the means of production and distribution; capital is invested in
order to produce more capital.
D. Emergence of a new eco. system:
- new No. European banking interests → Fugger family.
- charter banks → Bank of Amsterdam (1609); bank of London (1694).
- stock exchange → Bourse at Antwerp.
- insurance companies → Lloyd’s of London (maritime - ship catalogs/classifications).
- joint-stock companies.
E. Development of the Domestic System:
- increased specialization of skills within a more efficient system of over-all production.
- farm families can supplement their incomes.
- the accumulation of capital in the hands of the entrepreneur made possible the purchase of raw
material in greater bulk.
— the capitalist entrepreneur could now operate without the restrictions imposed by the urban guilds.

II. The Age of European Discovery:
A. Columbus and the first conquistadores.
- ecological exchange and its effects on both the Americas and Europe and Africa.
- destruction of Amer-Indian cultures.
B. Establishment of European Colonial Empires in the Americas and Asia.
— encomienda system (Latin America).
—Portuguese/Dutch/British/French trade in Southeast Asia.

III. Effects of the Commercial Revolution:
A. inflation —> “price revolution”.
B. population increase —> emergence of the middle class.
C. increase in world trade.
D. shift from the old market ports of the Mediterranean to the trans-Atlantic trade.
E. new trade restrictions (ex.: East India Co. —> royal monopolies).
F. economic depression at the end of the 16c.
G. African slave trade established (Triangle Trade).
H. changes in the social structure (role of the nobility, esp.) in Eastern and Western Europe.

The Protestant Reformation

1500 - 1560

1500 - 1560

I. The Reformation was the outgrowth of past ideas:



RABELAIS —> condemned various forms of corruption within the Church; priests no longer models of virtue; celibacy vow disregarded; condemned simony. LUTHER —> condemned corruption in the Church; believed priests should practice what they preached.

SIR THOMAS MORE —> expressed idea of communal living; no class distinctions; no unemployment; no competition; everyone living and working together; defied
Henry VIII; Catholic martyr.

JOHN CALVIN —> people already predestined for salvation; success on earth determined place in heaven; hard work and no leisure time were signs of success.

ERASMUS —> believed true religion was a matter of inward sincerity and pious devotion rather than an outward symbol of ceremony and ritual; Scriptures are the guide to life; wanted only moral reforms, not ritualistic.
LUTHER —> the Bible was a way of life; did not believe in pompous Church ceremonies; clergy not important; everyone is their own priest; one should be able to talk to God directly.

II. Causes of the Reformation:
A. dissatisfaction with wealth of Church; poor people believing bishops were of the wealthy
oppressive class.
- much financial abuse in Church —> simony, benefices; 30% of land in Eur. under
Church control.
B. corruption in Church leadership (ex. Alexander VI, Rodrigo Borgia)
C. decline in papal influence —> nationalistic churches springing up.
- “Babylonian Captivity”
- Great Schism
- Henry VIII of England’s defiance of papal power.
- conciliarism
D. Martin Luther’s 95 Theses.
E. the middle class wished to run their religious affairs as they handled their new businesses.
- they found Church bureaucracies still too medieval and rigid (view on usury, e.g.)
— Calvinist church came largely from these ideas (Max Weber’s thesis — “Protestant
Work Ethic”)
F. Great Peasant Revolt of 1520.

III. The Reformation worked in Northern Europe because:
A. monarchies resented the Church for not paying any taxes to the nation, but collecting taxes
from citizens belonging to the Church and sending the money to Rome.
B. Luther appealed to nationalistic feelings in the German states
- he denounced the Pope for involvement in politics as well as religion.
- he backed the nobility in the Peasant Revolt.
C. The upper class saw an opportunity to confiscate church property.
D. Printing press in Germany spread Luther’s ideas.
- Bibles were made accessible to the populous in the vernacular.
- individual interpretation of Sacred Scriptures.

IV. The Reformation did NOT work in Italy because?:
A. The Pope was in Rome and was Italian (use of Spanish Inquisition).
B. The Catholic Church was a source of wealth for Italy.
C. The Italian Renaissance made Italy prosperous. (money in art—a large part was
D. Italian universities made the questioning of theological principles unheard of.
E. Germany was the home of Luther and of many new, more theologically “liberal” universities.

V. Lutheranism:
A. Salvation by faith alone.
B. No need for sacraments (except Baptism, Eucharist, & Confirmation) or good works.
C. Only true authority is the Bible.
D. Each person must deal with God directly — each person is his/her own priest.
E. Consubstantiation.
F. No difference between the laity and the clergy.
G. Kept bishops for administrative purposes.
H. Refusal to recognize the authority of the Pope.
I. Married clergy.
J. Religious services in the vernacular.
K. The Church is subordinate to and the agent of civil authority.

VI. Calvinism:
A. Pessimistic about man; optimistic about God.
B. Predestination (“the elect”).
C. Strict interpretation of the Bible. (literal)
D. Rejected Papal authority.
E. Scorned pleasures as the idle activities which allowed the devil to influence one’s actions;
no smoking, drinking, gambling, blaspheming, dancing, music in religious services.
F. Only “sacraments” were Baptism and the Eucharist (were only a symbol of God’s presence).
G. Consubstantiation.
H. Church elders administered to the congregation (presbyters).
I. Too much leisure time leads to sin.
J. Puritans in England; Huguenots in France; Presbyterians in Scotland.

VII. Anglicanism:
A. Henry VIII of England resented the church for not granting him a divorce of Catherine of Aragon.
— he wanted church lands and property to add to his treasury.
B. the monarch of England now became the head of the Anglican Church as well.
C. Book of Common Prayer (Edward VI)
D. one had to be Anglican to hold a government job until the late 19c.

VIII. Social Significance of the Reformation:
A. Basic and lasting changes in education and the image and role of women.
B. It implemented the educational ideas of humanism. (study original sources in the original

IX. After Effects of the Reformation:
A. Catholic “Counter”-Reformation
- Council of Trent —> internal reforms and a clear listing of Church doctrines.
- a conservative response to the spread of Protestantism.
- “Men are to be changed by religion, not change it!.”
- reformed many of the previous abuses in the Church.
- the Inquisition was resurrected (esp. strong in Spain —> expulsion of the Moors {Moriscos}
back to North Africa and the Jews {Maranos} to Italy and the Middle East).
- new reform orders (Theatines, Capuchins, Ursulines, Modern Devotion, Oratorians).
- mysticism movement (St. Theresa of Avila, St. John of the Cross).
- The Index of Forbidden Books.
B. Religious Wars of the late 16c & Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
— SEE TREATIES PAGE for Peace of Augsburg (1555), Edict of Nantes (1598), and
Treaty of Westphalia (1648).

The Age of Absolutism

1581 - 1740

Main Themes:

  1. The During the 17c and 18c, Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia were able to establish or maintain a strong monarchy, standing army, efficient tax structures, large bureaucracy, and a more or less domesticated, divided or loyal nobility so that this period is known as the “Age of Absolutism.”
  2. England and France experienced very different political and social developments in the late 17c.
  3. French culture and political power dominated Europe in the 18c.
  4. One of the major reasons for the strong position of England from 1685-1763 lies in the supremacy of a parliament dominated by landowners and nobles of similar interests. The 18c became known as the “Age of the Aristocracy”. Therefore, this supremacy of Parliament provided Britain with the kind of unity sought elsewhere through absolutism.
  5. This period saw the beginnings of two long-term conflicts—Britain and France over trade and overseas empire and Austria and Prussia over the leadership of Germany.

I. Differing Concepts of Absolutism:
A. Thomas Hobbes → pro-absolutism; pro“divine-right” monarchy.
B. John Locke
- rejected absolute governments.
- basic human rights that no government can take away: life, liberty, and property.
— the right of the citizen to rebel against a government that violated these basic human rights.

IV. Eastern Europe:
A. Hapsburgs vs. Hohenzollerns
- growing competition in the Germanies.
- Pragmatic Sanctions (Maria Theresa).
- Hapsburg interests —> Bohemia, Austria, Hungary, Ottoman Empire (Balkans).
- Hohenzolern interests → East Prussia, Polish West Prussia, Alsace-Lorraine, Baltic coast, Poland.
B. policies of Leopold II, Maria Theresa, Joseph II —> “Enlightened Despots”
C. policies of Frederick William, the “Great Elector”, Frederick I, and Frederick II, the “Great”.
D. Russia in the 17c and early 18c:
- Peter the Great → “Westernization of Russia”. (“Windows to the West”)
- Catherine the Great —> expansion of Russian borders in SW; solidifying the power of the Czars;
sometimes seen as an “Enlightened Despot” (this is questionable).

The Scientific Revolution

1600 - 1700

Main Themes:

  1. The Renaissance and Reformation paved the way for the new science and philosophy of the 17c and 18c.
  2. The transition from the Middle Ages to early modern times represented a shift in emphasis from authoritative truth to factual truth.

Bohemian Period of the War

1618 - 1625

Bohemian Throne to Hapsburg Ferdinand → restore faith to Hapsburg lands
-Revokes religious freedoms of Protestants
~ Defenestration at Prague: regents out window of palace
-Internal War: Spain sends troops to Ferdinand (Maximilian of Bavaria+ Lutheran elector John George I Saxony support)
-Ferdinand’s army defeats Frederick at Battle of White Mountain - See more at: http://www.preceden.com/timelines/68958-ap-euro-review-timeline#sthash.7htDCWTu.dpuf

The Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Preconditions: Germany as a fragment country of 360 sovereignty political entities ( Peace of Augsburg)
~ Religious Divisions increase tensions for War
– Catholic HRE, Lutherans, Calvinists
~Growing scientific culture

The Danish Period

1625 - 1629

Raised fears of re-Catholicization due to Ferdinand II’s design
~ Lutheran King Christian IV of Denmark eager to extend influence over coast towns of North Sea → defeated by Maximilian
~Ferdinand seeks Albrecht of Wallenstien → brings force to Denmark
~Edict of Restitution:
Reasserts illegal Calvinism, Catholic safeguards Peace of Augsburg, orders the return of all church lands of Lutherans

Swedish Period

1630 - 1635

Gustavus Adolphus II king of unified Lutheran Nation
~alliance w/ Electors of Brandenburg+ Saxony = Victory and reversed war, and brought new mobility to change tactics

~ Battle of Lutzen: Adolphus dies, Deep religious motivation, greed and political gain real forces in War

~ Peace of Prague (1635): German Protestant states led by Saxony compromised w/ Ferdinand. France + Netherlands support Sweden, maximize their investment in war, and refuse agreement.

Swedish-French Period

1635 - 1648

1635 - 1648

War between French, Swedish, Spanish soldiers who loot Germany
-Germany in devastation and disunited to repulse foreign armies
-Munster and Osnabruck in Westphalia peace talks, war kills 1/3 of German population

Treaty of Westphalia


Rescinded Ferdinand’s Edict of Restitution + reasserted major feature of religious settlement: Peace of Augsburg
-Calvinists gain legal recognition, independence of Swiss Confederacy, and United Provinces of Netherlands, are a long recognized proclaimed in law
– Brandenburg-Prussia most powerful Northern German state
-France gains territory, expanding legal status of Protestantism, the pope could no longer deny

-Treaty of Pyrenees made France a major Power in an outside war w/Spain

Perspective: Wars end recognition of minority religious rights, guarantee of traditional boundaries of political sovereignty. Politics and Greed overshadowed religion and brought many parties into war.

The Enlightenment

1650 - 1800

Main Themes:

  1. The Enlightenment had its origins in the scientific and intellectual revolutions of the 17c.
  2. Enlightenment thinkers felt that change and reason were both possible and desireable for the sake of human liberty.
  3. Enlightenment philosophes provided a major source of ideas that could be used to undermine existing social and political structures.

I. The Major Themes of the Era:
A. rationalism —> logical reasoning based on facts.
B. cosmology —> new world view based on Newtonian physics —> analysis of natural phenomena as
C. secularism —> application of scientific theories to religion and society.
D. scientific method —> experimentation; observation; hypothesis.
E. utilitarianism (Bentham) —> laws created for the common good and not for special interests.
The greatest good for the greatest number.
F. optimism & self-confidence —> anything is possible (a reversal of medieval thinking).
G. tolerance —> a greater acceptance of different societies and cultures.
H. freedom —> a mind as well as a society free to think, free from prejudice.
I. mass education.
J. legal / penal reforms —> Beccaria, Bentham.
K. constitutionalism.
L. cosmopolitanism.

Major Powers

1750 - 1800

5 Major Powers:

World War I

1914 - 1918

World War 2

1939 - 1945


Spanish Events over History

Hernan Cortez

1519 - 1520

Cortez lands in Veracruz and makes alliances with Anti-Aztec natives. Smallpox infects natives and kills off almost 40%. Disease + Fresh Soldiers = Victory over Aztecs

Philip II's Reign

1556 - 1598

Major Goal: consolidate + secure lands of Charles V w/ strict conformity to Catholicism
-Failed to distinguish between important/ trivial matters
-Desired Spain to be a major power (economy dependent on imports of gold, silver+ goods) → set off inflation
-Expenses of war devastated economy (taxes, forced borrowing)
-Growth in wealth → paid debts + increased population
-Giant gap between privileged + unprivileged

Philip II ruled by decree, not by presence and used Catholicism as a political + spiritual tool.

Supremacy in Mediterranean:
– Turks advance into Austria to control the Mediterranean
– Spain becomes Catholicism’s Champion against Islam

Philip III's Reign and Spanish Economy

1598 - 1627

Spain was essentially bankrupt:
-Resources were depleted, and fear of the Inquisition had dwindled
-Based on trade w/ Americas + silver mines when region moving towards independence (needing materials Spain didn’t have)
– Money Spain received was going towards foreign policy
– Little industry/ agriculture, peasants ruined by taxation, not modern

Contributing Factors:
– Philip concerned with enjoying life
– Catholic Church paid no taxes owning 20% of land
– Nobility exempted from taxes

*Major Sign of Fallen Status: Taking loans from Portugal

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1713

Against France over Ruler of Spain

ended with:
-Grand Alliance of England, Dutch, Austrians and Prussians
~ Peace of Utrecht
-Confirms Philip V King of Spain, but crowns to never unite
– Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples given to Austria
– France loses Gibraltar, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Hudson Bay to England
~ Upholds Balance of Powers
~ completed Decline of Spain as a major Power
~ Vastly expanded Britain


English Events over History

Reign of Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Guides religious settlements w/ Parliament by merging a centralized episcopal system
-Anglican Church is mix of protestant doctrine + traditional Catholicism
-1559 Act of Supremacy repealed Mary I’s works
– Act of Uniformity revises version of Book of Common Prayer w/ 39 Articles form the original 42
– Conventicle Act of 1593: conform to English Church or face exile/death

Deterioration w/ Spanish Relations:
-Duke of Alba marched army into Netherlands to threaten English invasion
-Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth
-Don John’s demonstration at Mediterranean against English+ France
-At St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: Elizabeth sole protector of Protestants
-Treaty of Non-such: English soldiers+ Calvary to Netherlands

-Beheaded Mary Stuart for planning to overthrow from throne → causes Pope Sixtus to no longer retrain public support and Spain attempts to invade England

English Absolutism

1603 - 1689

II. 17c England: (see notes on the sheet regarding the evolution of Parliament)
A. James I (1603-1625) - supported absolute divine-right.
B. Charles I (1625-1649)
- fought openly with Parliament and the Puritans over money for his wars with Spain.
- arbitrary abuse of power (quartering troops, ship money, arbitrary arrests, etc.)
- Long Parliament (1640-1660)
C. Civil war (1642-1649): Roundheads versus Cavaliers
D. the Commonwealth (1649-1660) under the Cromwells.
- Puritan Republic.
- Ulster Plantation.
- unpopular military dictatorship. (Lord Protector)
E. Charles II (1660-1685) —> Stuart Restoration
- he learned the lessons of his predecessors (Don’t mess with Parliament!)
- religious toleration, but leaned toward the Catholics.
- Test Act (1673).
- Habeas Corpus Act (1679).
- he launched bold new foreign policy ventures chalenging the Dutch for the commercial
leadership of Europe.
F. James II (1685-1688)
- became unpopular because of his open Catholicism and return to absolute rule.
G. William & Mary —> “Glorious Revolution” (1688); a bloodless coup.
- Parliament now reigned supreme.
- never again would British kings be as powerful as Parliament.
- English Bill of Rights (1668-1689) → it settled all of the major issues between the kings and
Parliament (* see your notes for further details *)
H. development of the modern British political system:
- Whigs and Tories (distinctions between political party).
- evolution of the Cabinet system.
- Prime Minister (Robert Walpole, first P. M.)

James I (Stuart) of Scotland

1603 - 1625

Unfamiliar w/ English customs and tradition:
-Believes in Divine Right to rule (Responsible to God, not Parliament)
~ defender of Anglican Church, Distrusted Puritans (Calvinists)
– Parliament believed in defending their power sharing role in gov’t
– Parliament became more Puritan, sought reform of Anglican church
-Seen as sympathetic to Catholics (alliance w/ Spain)

Puritans: seek to purify Anglican Church from Pope+ Bishops

Charles I

1625 - 1642

-Parliament passes Petition of Right (1628) to control King
-taxation approval, no forced loans, trials, no quartering of soldiers
→ approves needs money but ignores limitations doesn’t call for 11
-Seeks illegal sources of revenue
-Puritans fear Catholic revival, Married to Catholic (failed to enforce Anti-Catholic laws)

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Civil War fought between Roundheads (Parliament) and Cavaliers (Royalists)
-Roundheads ally w/ Scots, led by Oliver Cromwell → New Model Army

-Parliament purges more moderate members leaving radical Puritans → PRIDE’S PURGE => RUMP PARLIAMENT
-Abolished monarchy, House of Lords and Anglican Church
– put on trial for treason and executed in Jan. 1649 (King)

Oliver Cromwell and 1 house Parliament began experiment w/ republican rule → Commonwealth
– restricted freedom of no-Puritans, enforced public morality
-subdue Scots, defeat Irish, gain trade routes from Dutch
~Cromwell dissolves Parliament twice

Peace of Utercht


-Grand Alliance of England, Dutch, Austrians and Prussians ~ Peace of Utrecht -Confirms Philip V King of Spain, but crowns to never unite - Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples given to Austria - France loses Gibraltar, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Hudson Bay to England ~ Upholds Balance of Powers ~ completed Decline of Spain as a major Power ~ Vastly expanded Britain


French Events over History

Wars of Religion

1559 - 1589

Background: Death of Henry II, followed by weak rulers and regency rule by Catherine d’ Medici
-French Nobility and Protestant groups take advantage
~ belief 2 religions couldn’t coexist in the same state
Players: Valois Kings=Catholic moderates, unwilling compromise
~Guise Family (fund by Jesuits) = Ultra-Catholic, destroy protestants, replace monarch
~ Henry of Navarre: Burbon ruler of Kingdom of Navarre (led Protestants)

St. Bartholomew's Day Massace

August 24, 1572 - August 27, 1572

Beings large-scale Civil War -Catherine, influenced by Guise family to wipe out Huguenots -Prevent Marriage to Compromise Religion between Henry of Navarre wed to Catholic Sister of Reigning King

War of Three Henry's

1588 - 1589

Guise supported by Spain & Protestants supported by German Princes Guise assassinated by Royal Guard in December 1588 August 1589, Henry III assassinated by crazy monk Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV, converts to Catholicism

French Absolutism

1589 - 1715

III. The Age of Louis XIV: (the “Sun King”)
A. Henry IV of Navarre (1589-1610)
- first to establish the Bourbon family.
- he began to curtail the privileges of the Fr. nobility.
- he issued the Edict of Nantes (* see treaties sheet )
B. Louis XIII (1616-1643)
- Cardinal Richelieu (machiavellian pragmatist)
- he committed Fr. to the Protestant side in the Thirty Years’ War.
C. Louis XIV (1643-1715)
- goals:
- make France the strongest country in Europe.
- make France the intellectual and political “light” to the rest of the world.
- L’etat, c’est moi! [I am the State!]
- government and administration:
- firm and uniform administration (intendants)
- war became an activity of the state (the armed forces were formerly in private hands).
- strengthened the army.
- built Versailles (keep the nobles under his watchful eyes!)
- never called the Estates-General.
- economic and financial policies
- costly, inefficient methods of tax collecting (nobility not taxed)
- Colbert, finance minister.
- mercantilism.
- monopolies abroad (ex: French East India Company)
- religion
- Protestants suffered.
- religious unity considered necessary to strengthen his rule.
- revoked the Edict of Nantes.
- vigorous foreign policy (
see 5-page sheets on Commercial & Dynastic Wars *)
- War of the League of Augsburg.
- War of the Spanish Succession.
- War of Devolution.
— effects of his reign:



he tried to make France more powerful.
he centralized the Fr. government.
he improved Fr. militarily.
he made Fr. a commercial rival of Britain.
he tamed the Fr. aristocracy.
he made the King and the State one and the same.
he taxed the peasants, not the nobility.
he was too extravegent (he put France into great debt).
the court at Versailles was too removed from the lives and problems of the common people.

Edict of Nantes


Attempt at religious toleration: Catholicism official religion of France Huguenots right to worship in selected areas/ fortified towns Huguenots could hold public offices

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

France Reaches Absolutist Development
– divine right: Kings are God’s representatives on Earth
– Fronde(s) made him distrust nobility → gov. to Versailles
-strong monarchy necessary to end chaos of war and rebellion

Manipulating Nobility:
-cooperation and collaboration rather than control
-royal court became machinery of Gov’t of Versailles
-reduced power of high nobles (of blood, [NOBLES OF THE SWORD])
~ removed from royal council, replaced with new titles { Nobles of the robe}
~ required nobles to live at Versailles for part of year→ separate power from status and grandeur
-ignored Estates General → nobles have no means of united action

Major Beliefs: ONE KING, ONE LAW, ONE FAITH => Protestants
1685 Edict of Fountainebleau revokes Edict of Nantes

Creates centralized administration
-continued hereditary office holders
-extended power/ authority of intendants
-royal patronage: sell offices, reward loyalty w/ contracts
~ people tied to the King


Austrian Events over History

The Rise of Austria/Prussia

1600 - 1806

After 30 years War: HRE declined into separate political units → Austria+ Prussia were the more Dominant States
-Defeat in Central Europe forced Austria to turn east + Consolidate rule
~during 30 yrs War Ferdinand Ii gains Bohemia
-reduces Bohemian Estates (noble assemblies)
-confiscated land of Protestants and gave to Catholic nobles and foreign aristocrats (build loyal base)
-Ferdinand III centralizes German speaking provinces (Austria, Styria, Tyrol)
~ creates standing army for internal opposition

Austria forced to turn East + Face Ottoman Threat
-Turkish Army laid Siege to Vienna 1683 → peak Muslims in Europe
- city saved by foreign aid (Polish+Russians)
~ Habsburgs conquered almost all of Hungary and Transylvania by 1699

State now 3 separate territories ruled by Habsburg Monarch:
-hereditary provinces of Austria, Kingdom of Bohemia, Hungary

Pragmatic Sanction


Charles VI issues Pragmatic Sanction
-Habsburg possessions not to be divided and passed onto single heir
~ Maria Theresa successor + promise of foreign powers to accept
-Tried to get approval, but agreements unbinding


Russians Events over History

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

-Takes control and visits West (1697-1698)
~ Primary Interest in Increasing Russia’s Size + Military Power
Determined to Westernize Europeanize “backwards Russia”

Restructures Military:
-tightens service requirements of nobility as admins for LIFE
-peasants in 25 year stints of service
-creates first real Russian Navy + special forces of Cossack

Reforms Central Gov’t, Military, and Civil Administration:
- consultative bodies disappear (local noble parliaments)
-replaced w/ Board of Administrators to run agencies (justice, war) in absence
-divides Russia into provinces to extend royal authority
-1722 institutes TABLE OF RANKS:
~opportunities for non-nobles to join nobility ranks
~14 levels, at 8th you were a noble (based on merit)

Educational Reform and Manners:
-universities for skilled technicians, and experts (5 yr. required abroad for nobility sons)
-adopts western dress, manners, style
-Traditional restraints on women were lifted, encouraged to mix and play greater gender role (Family Life)

-tax increase 3x for peasants: “soul tax” replace land tax
– decreases taxes for nobility
-gov’t imposed Serf Labor forces
-industries owned by Tsar (4/5 revenue went to military/war)
-adopted mercantilism policies (export more than import)


Prussians Events over History

The Rise of Prussia

1640 - 1740

The Hohenzollern’s were hereditary rulers of Brandenburg and Prussia
-Imperial electors of Brandenburg added Prussia to its holdings (1618) when junior branch (cousins) of family died out (expand marriage/death)

Thirty Years War and other conflicts weakened power of Estates (representative bodies) in German Territories

Frederick William "Great Elector"

1640 - 1688

Thirty Years war and weakened power of Estates in German Territories allowed elector to move towards consolidation of power
-weakened traditional parliamentary liberties
-nobility class lost right of taxation, reduced power of Estates
~1660 Frederick William forced Estates to accept permanent taxation w/out consent
~ soldiers doubled as tax collectors/police/state bureaucracy
~ revenue tripled, army grew 10x
-permanent crisis (wars etc) gave authority to Frederick
~ nobility too concerned w/ rights/privilege/ status
~ 1653: nobles given freedom from taxation, control over peasants in exchange for reduced role on politics
~ bulk of taxes fell onto towns

MONEY=> make army => make bureaucracy => Don’t need nobility => consolidate power on own

Late 1600s Kings had less opposition to centralization

The Netherlands

Dutch Events over History

The Dutch Revolt

1566 - 1587

Set up: Netherlands were bankers, traders, manufactures
~ divided into 17 provinces and ruled themselves
~> Charles V abdicates giving Netherlands to Philip II of Spain (seen as a foreigner to country)

Revolt: Philip attempts to control Netherlands & wipe out Protestantism.
~1559: Appoints half-sister as Regent→ Inquisition+ raise taxes
~1566: Calvinists rampage destruction at forms of religion
-Duke of Alva sent to end rebellion
– “Council of Blood” tribunal set up to execute leaders
– more taxation
~ 1576: William “The Silent” of Orange → Pacification of Ghent
– fails unification due to religious differences
-Southern lands remain Catholic + Spanish Control
-Northern lands form Union of Utrecht to declare independence from Spain

Golden Age of the Netherlands

1602 - 1700

Netherlands became a modern constitutional state:
-Oligarchy of wealthy merchants (regents) controlled province through States (assemblies) and held all the power
– Each State appointed a Stadholder as executive (House of Orange)
-States General handled foreign affairs
-rebuplican+ middle class values, not aristocratic
– confederation = weak union of strong provinces

In emergencies= House of Orange takes Over***
Trade: Religious toleration, Bank of Amsterdam, finishing+ merchant fleet (offered lowest shipping rates, largest merchant marine, and depended less on export than transport

~Dutch East India Company in 1602: private trading company
– cut into Portuguese trading in East Asia
– Dutch West India Company traded w/ Latin America+ Africa

Netherlands Independence

1609 - 1648

Queen Elizabeth of England declare truce 1609→ accepted by Spain King Philip III

Netherlands Independent in 1648

Peace of Westphilia


Peace of Westphalia confirms Dutch independence from Spain